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NOTICE OF INCORPORATION 

United States Legal Document 

$3T All citizens and residents are hereby advised that 

this is a legally binding document duly incorporated by 

reference and that failure to comply with such 

requirements as hereby detailed within may subject you 

to criminal or civil penalties under the law. Ignorance of 

the law shall not excuse noncompliance and it is the 

responsibility of the citizens to inform themselves as to 

the laws that are enacted in the United States of America 

and in the states and cities contained therein. ~^k 

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ASME BPVC VI 2010, Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code, 
Section VI, Recommended Rules for the 
Care and Operation of Heating Boilers, as required 
by the States of Connecticut, Minnesota, Nevada, 
North Carolina, Oklahoma, Rhode Island, Tennessee, 
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VI 



RECOMMENDED ROLES FOR 
HEATING BOILERS 

ASME Bailer anil Pressor Vessel Committee on Heating Boilers 




X0601 1 



Date of Issuance: July 1, 2011 



This international code or standard was developed under procedures accredited as meeting the criteria for American National 
Standards and it is an American National Standard. The Standards Committee that approved the code or standard was balanced 
to assure that individuals from competent and concerned interests have had an opportunity to participate. The proposed code 
or standard was made available for public review and comment that provides an opportunity for additional public input from 
industry, academia, regulatory agencies, and the public-at-large. 

ASME does not "approve," "rate," or "endorse" any item, construction, proprietary device, or activity. 

ASME does not take any position with respect to the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any items 
mentioned in this document, and does not undertake to insure anyone utilizing a standard against liability for infringement of 
any applicable letters patent, nor assume any such liability. Users of a code or standard are expressly advised that determination 
of the validity of any such patent rights, and the risk of infringement of such rights, is entirely their own responsibility. 

Participation by federal agency representative(s) or person(s) affiliated with industry is not to be interpreted as government 
or industry endorsement of this code or standard. 

ASME accepts responsibility for only those interpretations of this document issued in accordance with the established ASME 
procedures and policies, which precludes the issuance of interpretations by individuals. 

The footnotes in this document are part of this American National Standard. 



No part of this document may be reproduced in any form, in an electronic retrieval system or otherwise, without the prior 

written permission of the publisher. 

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 56-3934 
Printed in the United States of America 

The American Society of Mechanical Engineers 
Three Park Avenue, New York, NY 10016-5990 

Copyright© 2011 by 
THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS 

All rights reserved 



CONTENTS 



List of Sections vii 

Foreword ix 

Statement of Policy on the Use of the Certification Mark and Code Authorization in 

Advertising xi 

Statement of Policy on the Use of ASME Marking to Identify Manufactured Items xi 

Submittal of Technical Inquiries to the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Committee — 

Mandatory xii 

Personnel xiv 

Summary of Changes xxvii 

1. General 1 

1.01 Scope 1 

1.02 Use of Illustrations 1 

1 .03 Manufacturer's Information 1 

1.04 Reference to Section IV 1 

1 .05 Glossary of Terms 1 

2. Types of Boilers 14 

2.01 Classification 14 

2.02 Steel Boilers 14 

2.03 Cast Iron Boilers 14 

2.04 Modular Boilers 14 

2.05 Vacuum Boilers 14 

Figures 

2.02A-1 Horizontal Return Tube, Brick-Set 15 

2.02A-2 Gas Flow Patterns of Scotch- Type Boilers 15 

2.02A-3 Type C Firebox Boiler 16 

2.02A-4 Three-Pass Firebox Boiler 16 

2.02A-5 Locomotive Firebox Boiler 17 

2.02A-6 Vertical Firetube Boiler 17 

2.03A Horizontal Sectional Cast Iron Boiler 18 

2.03B Vertical Sectional Cast Iron Boiler 18 

2.04A Modules Connected With Parallel Piping 18 

2.04B Modules Connected With Primary-Secondary Piping 18 

3. Accessories and Installation 19 

3.01 Safety and Safety Relief Valves 19 

3.02 Low-Water Fuel Cutoffs and Water Feeders 19 

3.03 Traps 19 

3.04 Air Eliminators 20 

3.05 Condensate Return Pumps and Return Loop 20 

3.06 Vacuum Return Pump 20 

3.07 Circulators (Circulating Pumps) 20 

3.08 Expansion Tank 23 



3.09 
3.10 
3.11 
3.20 
3.21 
3.22 
3.23 
3.24 
3.25 
3.26 
3.27 
3.28 

3.29 
3.30 
3.31 
3.32 
3.33 
3.34 
3.35 
3.36 
3.37 
3.38 



Figures 

3.01 

3.01A 

3.01B 

3.02A 

3.02B 

3.03-1 

3.03-2 

3.03-3 

3.03-4 

3.05 

3.11 

3.201 

3.30-1 

3.30-2 

3.30-3 

3.30-4A 

3.30-4B 



Tables 

3.20 

3.31C-1 
3.31C-2 

3.33 



Oil Preheaters 23 

Fuel Oil Storage and Supply Systems 23 

Pressure Gage 24 

Pressure Relieving Valve Requirements 26 

Steam Gages 29 

Water Gage Glasses 29 

Water Column and Water Level Control Pipes 29 

Pressure Control 30 

Pressure or Altitude Gages 30 

Thermometers 30 

Temperature Control 30 

Automatic Low- Water Fuel Cutoff and /or Water Feeding 

Device (Steam) 30 

Low-Water Fuel Cutoff (Hot Water) 31 

Piping 31 

Provisions for Thermal Expansion in Hot Water Systems 37 

Stop Valves 38 

Bottom Blowoff and Drain Valves 38 

Oil Heaters 39 

Shutdown Switches and Circuit Breakers 39 

Modular Boilers 39 

Vacuum Boilers 39 

Storage Tanks for Hot Water Supply Systems 39 

Official Certification Mark 19 

Safety Valve 20 

Safety Relief Valve 21 

Float Type Low-Water Cutoff 21 

Electric Probe Type Low- Water Control 22 

Thermostatic Trap 23 

Float Trap 23 

Float and Thermostatic Trap 23 

Bucket Trap With Trap Closed 23 

Typical Return Loop 24 

Pressure Gages 25 

Safety Relief Valve Discharge Pipe 28 

Single Hot Water Heating Boiler — Acceptable Piping Installation 32 

Hot Water Heating Boilers in Battery — Acceptable Piping Installation 33 

Single Steam Boilers — Acceptable Piping Installation 34 

Steam Boilers in Battery — Pumped Return — Acceptable Piping Installation 35 

Steam Boilers in Battery — Gravity Return — Acceptable Piping Installation 36 

Minimum Pounds of Steam Per Hour Per Square Foot of Heating Surface 

(kg/h/m 2 ) 26 

Expansion Tank Capacities for Gravity Hot Water Systems 37 

Expansion Tank Capacities for Forced Hot Water Systems 37 

Size of Bottom Blowoff Piping, Valves, and Cocks 38 



IV 



4. Fuels 40 

4.01 Gas — Natural, Manufactured, Mixed 40 

4.02 Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) 40 

4.03 Fuel Oils 40 

4.04 Coal 41 

4.05 Electricity 41 

5. Fuel Burning Equipment and Euel Burning Controls 42 

5.01 Gas Burning Equipment 42 

5.02 Oil Burning Equipment 42 

5.03 Coal Burning Equipment 44 

5.04 Controls 44 

Figures 

5.01 A Atmospheric Gas Burner 42 

5.01C Combination Fuel Burners 43 

5.02A High-Pressure Atomizing Burner 43 

5.02D Horizontal Rotary Cup Fuel Oil Burner , 44 

5.03-1 Underfeed Single-Retort Stoker 45 

5.03-2 Overthrow Reciprocating Plate-Feed Type Spreader Stoker 45 

5.03-3 Chain Grate Stoker With Section Showing Links 46 

6. Boiler Room Facilities 48 

6.01 General 48 

6.02 Safety 48 

6.03 Lighting 48 

6.04 Ventilation 48 

6.05 Water and Drain Connections 48 

6.06 Fire Protection 48 

6.07 Housekeeping 48 

6.08 Posting of Certificates and/or Licenses 49 

6.09 Recordkeeping, Logs, Etc 49 

7. Operation, Maintenance, and Repair — Steam Boilers 50 

7.01 Starting a New Boiler and Heating System 50 

7.02 Starting a Boiler After Layup (Single Boiler Installation) 51 

7.03 Condensation 51 

7.04 Cutting in an Additional Boiler 51 

7.05 Operation 51 

7.06 Removal of Boiler From Service 53 

7.07 Maintenance 53 

7.08 Boiler Repairs 55 

7.09 Tests and Inspections of Steam Heating Boilers 55 

8. Operation, Maintenance, and Repair — Hot Water Boilers and Hot Water 

Heating Boilers 59 

8.01 Starting a New Boiler and Heating System 59 

8.02 Starting a Boiler After Layup (Single Boiler Installation) 59 

8.03 Condensation 60 

8.04 Cutting in an Additional Boiler 60 

8.05 Operation 60 

8.06 Removal of Boiler From Service 61 



8.07 Maintenance 61 

8.08 Boiler Repairs 63 

8.09 Tests and Inspections of Hot Water Heating and Supply Boilers 64 

9. Water Treatment 67 

9.01 Scope 67 

9.02 Considerations 67 

9.03 Services of Water Treatment Specialists 67 

9.04 Conformity With Local Ordinances 67 

9.05 Boiler Water Troubles ! 67 

9.06 Chemicals Used 67 

9.07 Functions of Chemicals 68 

9.08 Treatment Alternatives 68 

9.09 Blowdown 68 

9.10 Feeders 69 

9. 1 1 Procedures 69 

9.12 Glossary of Water Treatment Terms 69 

MANDATORY APPENDICES 

I Exhibits 71 

II Submittal of Technical Inquiries to the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Committee 82 

III Standard Units for Use in Equations 83 

NONMANDATORY APPENDIX 

A Guidance for the Use of U.S. Customary and SI Units in the ASME Boiler 

and Pressure Vessel Code 84 

Index 87 



2010 ASME «io. 

BOILER AND PRESSURE VESSEL CODE 



SECTIONS 

I Rules for Construction of Power Boilers 

II Materials 

Part A — Ferrous Material Specifications 

Part B — Nonferrous Material Specifications 

Part C — Specifications for Welding Rods, Electrodes, and Filler Metals 

Part D — Properties (Customary) 

Part D — Properties (Metric) 

III Rules for Construction of Nuclear Facility Components 

Subsection NCA — General Requirements for Division 1 and Division 2 
Division 1 

Subsection NB — Class 1 Components 

Subsection NC — Class 2 Components 

Subsection ND — Class 3 Components 

Subsection NE — Class MC Components 

Subsection NF — Supports 

Subsection NG — Core Support Structures 

Subsection NH — Class 1 Components in Elevated Temperature Service 

Appendices 

Division 2 — Code for Concrete Containments 

Division 3 — Containments for Transportation and Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel 
and High Level Radioactive Material and Waste 

IV Rules for Construction of Heating Boilers 

V Nondestructive Examination 

VI Recommended Rules for the Care and Operation of Heating Boilers 

VII Recommended Guidelines for the Care of Power Boilers 

VIII Rules for Construction of Pressure Vessels 

Division 1 

Division 2 — Alternative Rules 

Division 3 — Alternative Rules for Construction of High Pressure Vessels 

IX Welding and Brazing Qualifications 

X Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Pressure Vessels 

XI Rules for Inservice Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Components 

XII Rules for Construction and Continued Service of Transport Tanks 



ADDENDA 

Addenda, which include additions and revisions to indi- 
vidual Sections of the Code, will be sent automatically to 
purchasers of the applicable Sections up to the publication 
of the 2013 Code. The 2010 Code is available only in the 
loose-leaf format; accordingly, the Addenda will be issued 
in the loose-leaf format. 

INTERPRETATIONS 

ASME issues written replies to inquiries concerning 
interpretation of technical aspects of the Code. The 
Interpretations for each individual Section will be pub- 
lished separately and will be included as part of the update 
service to that Section. Interpretations of Section III, 
Divisions 1 and 2, will be included with the update service 
to Subsection NCA. 



Interpretations of the Code are posted in January and 
July at http://cstools.asme.org/interpretations.cfm. 



CODE CASES 

The Boiler and Pressure Vessel Committee meets regu- 
larly to consider proposed additions and revisions to the 
Code and to formulate Cases to clarify the intent of existing 
requirements or provide, when the need is urgent, rules 
for materials or constructions not covered by existing Code 
rules. Those Cases that have been adopted will appear 
in the appropriate 2010 Code Cases book: "Boilers and 
Pressure Vessels" and "Nuclear Components." 
Supplements will be sent automatically to the purchasers 
of the Code Cases books up to the publication of the 
2013 Code. 



FOREWORD 



(10) 

(a) 



The American Society of Mechanical Engineers set up a 
committee in 1911 for the purpose of formulating standard 
rules for the construction of steam boilers and other pres- 
sure vessels. This committee is now called the Boiler and 
Pressure Vessel Committee. 

The Committee's function is to establish rules of safety, 
relating only to pressure integrity, governing the construc- 
tion 1 of boilers, pressure vessels, transport tanks and 
nuclear components, and inservice inspection for pressure 
integrity of nuclear components and transport tanks, and 
to interpret these rules when questions arise regarding their 
intent. This Code does not address other safety issues relat- 
ing to the construction of boilers, pressure vessels, transport 
tanks and nuclear components, and the inservice inspection 
of nuclear components and transport tanks. The user of 
the Code should refer to other pertinent codes, standards, 
laws, regulations, or other relevant documents. With few 
exceptions, the rules do not, of practical necessity, reflect 
the likelihood and consequences of deterioration in service 
related to specific service fluids or external operating envi- 
ronments. Recognizing this, the Committee has approved 
a wide variety of construction rules in this Section to allow 
the user or his designee to select those which will provide 
a pressure vessel having a margin for deterioration in ser- 
vice so as to give a reasonably long, safe period of use- 
fulness. Accordingly, it is not intended that this Section 
be used as a design handbook; rather, engineering judgment 
must be employed in the selection of those sets of Code 
rules suitable to any specific service or need. 

This Code contains mandatory requirements, specific 
prohibitions, and nonmandatory guidance for construction 
activities. The Code does not address all aspects of these 
activities and those aspects that are not specifically 
addressed should not be considered prohibited. The Code 
is not a handbook and cannot replace education, experience, 
and the use of engineering judgment. The phrase 
engineering judgment refers to technical judgments made 
by knowledgeable designers experienced in the application 
of the Code. Engineering judgments must be consistent 
with Code philosophy and such judgments must never 
be used to overrule mandatory requirements or specific 
prohibitions of the Code. 



Construction, as used in this Foreword, is an all-inclusive term com- 
prising materials, design, fabrication, examination, inspection, testing, 
certification, and pressure relief. 



The Committee recognizes that tools and techniques 
used for design and analysis change as technology prog- 
resses and expects engineers to use good judgment in the 
application of these tools. The designer is responsible for 
complying with Code rules and demonstrating compliance 
with Code equations when such equations are mandatory. 
The Code neither requires nor prohibits the use of comput- 
ers for the design or analysis of components constructed 
to the requirements of the Code. However, designers and 
engineers using computer programs for design or analysis 
are cautioned that they are responsible for all technical 
assumptions inherent in the programs they use and they 
are responsible for the application of these programs to 
their design. 

The Code does not fully address tolerances. When 
dimensions, sizes, or other parameters are not specified 
with tolerances, the values of these parameters are consid- 
ered nominal and allowable tolerances or local variances 
may be considered acceptable when based on engineering 
judgment and standard practices as determined by the 
designer. 

The Boiler and Pressure Vessel Committee deals with 
the care and inspection of boilers and pressure vessels in 
service only to the extent of providing suggested rules of 
good practice as an aid to owners and their inspectors. 

The rules established by the Committee are not to be 
interpreted as approving, recommending, or endorsing any 
proprietary or specific design or as limiting in any way the 
manufacturer's freedom to choose any method of design 
or any form of construction that conforms to the Code rules. 

The Boiler and Pressure Vessel Committee meets regu- 
larly to consider revisions of the rules, new rules as dictated 
by technological development, Code Cases, and requests 
for interpretations. Only the Boiler and Pressure Vessel 
Committee has the authority to provide official interpreta- 
tions of this Code. Requests for revisions, new rules, Code 
Cases, or interpretations shall be addressed to the Secretary 
in writing and shall give full particulars in order to receive 
consideration and action (see Submittal of Technical 
Inquiries to the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Committee). 
Proposed revisions to the Code resulting from inquiries will 
be presented to the Standards Committees for appropriate 
action. The action of the Standards Committees becomes 
effective only after confirmation by letter ballot of the 
Committees and approval by ASME. 



Proposed revisions to the Code approved by the 
Committee are submitted to the American National 
Standards Institute and published at http://cstools, 
asme.org/csconnect/public/index.cfm ?PublicReview = 
Revisions to invite comments from all interested persons. 
After the allotted time for public review and final approval 
by ASME, revisions are published in updates to the Code. 

Code Cases may be used in the construction of compo- 
nents to be stamped with the Certification Mark beginning 
with the date of their approval by ASME. 

After Code revisions are approved by ASME, they may 
be used beginning with the date of issuance. Revisions, 
except for revisions to material specifications in Section II, 
Parts A and B, become mandatory six months after such 
date of issuance, except for boilers or pressure vessels 
contracted for prior to the end of the six-month period. 
Revisions to material specifications are originated by the 
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and 
other recognized national or international organizations, 
and are usually adopted by ASME. However, those revi- 
sions may or may not have any effect on the suitability of 
material, produced to earlier editions of specifications, for 
use in ASME construction. ASME material specifications 
approved for use in each construction Code are listed in 
the Guideline for Acceptable ASTM Editions and in the 
Guideline for Acceptable Non-ASTM Editions, in Section 
II, Parts A and B. These Guidelines list, for each specifica- 
tion, the latest edition adopted by ASME, and earlier and 
later editions considered by ASME to be identical for 
ASME construction. 

The Boiler and Pressure Vessel Committee in the formu- 
lation of its rules and in the establishment of maximum 
design and operating pressures considers materials, con- 
struction, method of fabrication, inspection, and safety 
devices. 

The Code Committee does not rule on whether a compo- 
nent shall or shall not be constructed to the provisions of 
the Code. The Scope of each Section has been established 
to identify the components and parameters considered by 
the Committee in formulating the Code rules. 

Questions or issues regarding compliance of a specific 
component with the Code rules are to be directed to the 
ASME Certificate Holder (Manufacturer). Inquiries con- 
cerning the interpretation of the Code are to be directed 



to the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Committee. 
ASME is to be notified should questions arise concerning 
improper use of the Certification Mark. 

The specifications for materials given in Section II are 
identical with or similar to those of specifications published 
by ASTM, AWS, and other recognized national or interna- 
tional organizations. When reference is made in an ASME 
material specification to a non-ASME specification for 
which a companion ASME specification exists, the refer- 
ence shall be interpreted as applying to the ASME material 
specification. Not all materials included in the material 
specifications in Section II have been adopted for Code 
use. Usage is limited to those materials and grades adopted 
by at least one of the other Sections of the Code for applica- 
tion under rules of that Section. All materials allowed by 
these various Sections and used for construction within the 
scope of their rules shall be furnished in accordance with 
material specifications contained in Section II or referenced 
in the Guidelines for Acceptable Editions in Section II, 
Parts A and B, except where otherwise provided in Code 
Cases or in the applicable Section of the Code. Materials 
covered by these specifications are acceptable for use in 
items covered by the Code Sections only to the degree 
indicated in the applicable Section. Materials for Code use 
should preferably be ordered, produced, and documented 
on this basis; Guidelines for Acceptable Editions in 
Section II, Parts A and B list editions of ASME and year 
dates of specifications that meet ASME requirements and 
which may be used in Code construction. Material pro- 
duced to an acceptable specification with requirements dif- 
ferent from the requirements of the corresponding 
specifications listed in the Guidelines for Acceptable 
Editions in Part A or Part B may also be used in accordance 
with the above, provided the material manufacturer or ves- 
sel manufacturer certifies with evidence acceptable to the 
Authorized Inspector that the corresponding requirements 
of specifications listed in the Guidelines for Acceptable 
Editions in Part A or Part B have been met. Material 
produced to an acceptable material specification is not 
limited as to country of origin. 

When required by context in this Section, the singular 
shall be interpreted as the plural, and vice-versa; and the 
feminine, masculine, or neuter gender shall be treated as 
such other gender as appropriate. 



STATEMENT OF POLICY 

ON THE USE OF THE CERTIFICATION MARK AND 

CODE AUTHORIZATION IN ADVERTISING 



(10) 
(a) 



ASME has established procedures to authorize qualified 
organizations to perform various activities in accordance 
with the requirements of the ASME Boiler and Pressure 
Vessel Code. It is the aim of the Society to provide recogni- 
tion of organizations so authorized. An organization hold- 
ing authorization to perform various activities in 
accordance with the requirements of the Code may state 
this capability in its advertising literature. 

Organizations that are authorized to use the Certification 
Mark for marking items or constructions that have been 
constructed and inspected in compliance with the ASME 
Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code are issued Certificates of 
Authorization. It is the aim of the Society to maintain the 
standing of the Certification Mark for the benefit of the 
users, the enforcement jurisdictions, and the holders of the 
Certification Mark who comply with all requirements. 

Based on these objectives, the following policy has been 
established on the usage in advertising of facsimiles of 
the Certification Mark, Certificates of Authorization, and 
reference to Code construction. The American Society of 



Mechanical Engineers does not ''approve," "certify," 
"rate," or "endorse" any item, construction, or activity and 
there shall be no statements or implications that might so 
indicate. An organization holding the Certification Mark 
and/or a Certificate of Authorization may state in advertis- 
ing literature that items, constructions, or activities "are 
built (produced or performed) or activities conducted in 
accordance with the requirements of the ASME Boiler and 
Pressure Vessel Code," or "meet the requirements of the 
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code." An ASME cor- 
porate logo shall not be used by any organization other 
than ASME. 

The Certification Mark shall be used only for stamping 
and nameplates as specifically provided in the Code. How- 
ever, facsimiles may be used for the purpose of fostering 
the use of such construction. Such usage may be by an 
association or a society, or by a holder of the Certification 
Mark who may also use the facsimile in advertising to 
show that clearly specified items will carry the Certification 
Mark. General usage is permitted only when all of a manu- 
facturer's items are constructed under the rules. 



STATEMENT OF POLICY 

ON THE USE OF ASME MARKING 

TO IDENTIFY MANUFACTURED ITEMS 



(a) 



The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code provides 
rules for the construction of boilers, pressure vessels, and 
nuclear components. This includes requirements for mate- 
rials, design, fabrication, examination, inspection, and 
stamping. Items constructed in accordance with all of the 
applicable rules of the Code are identified with the official 
Certification Mark described in the governing Section of 
the Code. 

Markings such as "ASME," "ASME Standard," or any 
other marking including "ASME" or the Certification Mark 



shall not be used on any item that is not constructed in 
accordance with all of the applicable requirements of the 
Code. 

Items shall not be described on ASME Data Report 
Forms nor on similar forms referring to ASME that tend 
to imply that all Code requirements have been met when, 
in fact, they have not been. Data Report Forms covering 
items not fully complying with ASME requirements should 
not refer to ASME or they should clearly identify all excep- 
tions to the ASME requirements. 



(a) 



SUBMITTAL OF TECHNICAL INQUIRIES TO THE 
BOILER AND PRESSURE VESSEL COMMITTEE — 

MANDATORY 



1 INTRODUCTION 

(a) The following information provides guidance to 
Code users for submitting technical inquiries to the 
Committee. See Guideline on the Approval of New 
Materials Under the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel 
Code in Section II, Parts C and D for additional require- 
ments for requests involving adding new materials to the 
Code. Technical inquiries include requests for revisions or 
additions to the Code rules, requests for Code Cases, and 
requests for Code interpretations, as described below. 

(1 ) Code Revisions, Code revisions are considered to 
accommodate technological developments, address admin- 
istrative requirements, incorporate Code Cases, or to clarify 
Code intent. 

(2) Code Cases. Code Cases represent alternatives or 
additions to existing Code rules. Code Cases are written 
as a question and reply, and are usually intended to be 
incorporated into the Code at a later date. When used, 
Code Cases prescribe mandatory requirements in the same 
sense as the text of the Code. However, users are cautioned 
that not all jurisdictions or owners automatically accept 
Code Cases. The most common applications for Code 
Cases are: 

(a) to permit early implementation of an approved 
Code revision based on an urgent need 

(b) to permit the use of a new material for Code 
construction 

(c) to gain experience with new materials or alter- 
native rules prior to incorporation directly into the Code 

(3) Code Interpretations. Code Interpretations pro- 
vide clarification of the meaning of existing rules in the 
Code, and are also presented in question and reply format. 
Interpretations do not introduce new requirements. In cases 
where existing Code text does not fully convey the meaning 
that was intended, and revision of the rules is required to 
support an interpretation, an Intent Interpretation will be 
issued and the Code will be revised. 

(b) The Code rules, Code Cases, and Code Interpreta- 
tions established by the Committee are not to be considered 
as approving, recommending, certifying, or endorsing any 
proprietary or specific design, or as limiting in any way 



the freedom of manufacturers, constructors, or owners to 
choose any method of design or any form of construction 
that conforms to the Code rules. 

(c) Inquiries that do not comply with these provisions 
or that do not provide sufficient information for the 
Committee's full understanding may result in the request 
being returned to the inquirer with no action. 



2 INQUIRY FORMAT 

Submittals to the Committee shall include: 

(a) Purpose. Specify one of the following: 

(1 ) revision of present Code rules 

(2) new or additional Code rules 

(3) Code Case 

(4) Code Interpretation 

(b) Background. Provide the information needed for the 
Committee's understanding of the inquiry, being sure to 
include reference to the applicable Code Section, Division, 
Edition, Addenda (if applicable), paragraphs, figures, and 
tables. Preferably, provide a copy of the specific referenced 
portions of the Code. 

(c) Presentations. The inquirer may desire or be asked 
to attend a meeting of the Committee to make a formal 
presentation or to answer questions from the Committee 
members with regard to the inquiry. Attendance at a 
Committee meeting shall be at the expense of the inquirer. 
The inquirer' s attendance or lack of attendance at a meeting 
shall not be a basis for acceptance or rejection of the inquiry 
by the Committee. 



3 CODE REVISIONS OR ADDITIONS 

Requests for Code revisions or additions shall provide 
the following: 

(a) Proposed Revisions or Additions. For revisions, 
identify the rules of the Code that require revision and 
submit a copy of the appropriate rules as they appear in the 
Code, marked up with the proposed revision. For additions, 
provide the recommended wording referenced to the 
existing Code rules. 



(b) Statement of Need. Provide a brief explanation of 
the need for the revision or addition. 

(c) Background Information. Provide background infor- 
mation to support the revision or addition, including any 
data or changes in technology that form the basis for the 
request that will allow the Committee to adequately evalu- 
ate the proposed revision or addition. Sketches, tables, 
figures, and graphs should be submitted as appropriate. 
When applicable, identify any pertinent paragraph in the 
Code that would be affected by the revision or addition 
and identify paragraphs in the Code that reference the 
paragraphs that are to be revised or added. 



4 CODE CASES 

Requests for Code Cases shall provide a Statement of 
Need and Background Information similar to that defined 
in 3(b) and 3(c), respectively, for Code revisions or addi- 
tions. The urgency of the Code Case (e.g., project underway 
or imminent, new procedure, etc.) must be defined and it 
must be confirmed that the request is in connection with 
equipment that will bear the Certification Mark, with the 
exception of Section XI applications. The proposed Code 
Case should identify the Code Section and Division, and 
be written as a Question and a Reply in the same format 
as existing Code Cases. Requests for Code Cases should 
also indicate the applicable Code Editions and Addenda 
(if applicable) to which the proposed Code Case applies. 



5 CODE INTERPRETATIONS 

(a) Requests for Code Interpretations shall provide the 
following: 

(1) Inquiry. Provide a condensed and precise ques- 
tion, omitting superfluous background information and, 
when possible, composed in such a way that a "yes" or a 
"no" Reply, with brief provisos if needed, is acceptable. 
The question should be technically and editorially correct. 

(2) Reply. Provide a proposed Reply that will clearly 
and concisely answer the Inquiry question. Preferably, the 



Reply should be "yes" or "no," with brief provisos if 
needed. 

(3) Background Information. Provide any back- 
ground information that will assist the Committee in under- 
standing the proposed Inquiry and Reply. 

(b) Requests for Code Interpretations must be limited 
to an interpretation of a particular requirement in the Code 
or a Code Case. The Committee cannot consider consulting 
type requests such as the following: 

(1) a review of calculations, design drawings, weld- 
ing qualifications, or descriptions of equipment or parts to 
determine compliance with Code requirements; 

(2) a request for assistance in performing any Code- 
prescribed functions relating to, but not limited to, material 
selection, designs, calculations, fabrication, inspection, 
pressure testing, or installation; 

(3) a request seeking the rationale for Code 
requirements. 



6 SUBMITTALS 

Submittals to and responses from the Committee shall 
meet the following: 

(a) Submittal Inquiries from Code users shall be in 
English and preferably be submitted in typewritten form; 
however, legible handwritten inquiries will also be consid- 
ered. They shall include the name, address, telephone num- 
ber, fax number, and e-mail address, if available, of the 
inquirer and be mailed to the following address: 

Secretary 

ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Committee 
Three Park Avenue 
New York, NY 10016-5990 
As an alternative, inquiries may be submitted via e-mail 
to: SecretaryBPV@asme.org. 

(b) Response. The Secretary of the ASME Boiler and 
Pressure Vessel Committee or of the appropriate 
Subcommittee shall acknowledge receipt of each properly 
prepared inquiry and shall provide a written response to 
the inquirer upon completion of the requested action by 
the Code Committee. 



(a) 



PERSONNEL 

ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Standards Committees, 

Subgroups, and Working Groups 



As of January 1, 2011 



TECHNICAL OVERSIGHT MANAGEMENT COMMITTEE (TOMC) 



CONFERENCE COMMITTEE 



J. G. Feldstein, Chair 
T. P. Pastor, Vice Chair 
J. S. Brzuszkiewicz, Staff 

Secretary 
R. W, Barnes 
R. J. Basile 
J. E. Batey 
T. L. Bedeaux 
D. L. Berger 
M. N. Bressler 
D. A. Canonico 
A. Chaudouet 
R. P. Deubier 
D. A. Douin 
D. Eisberg 
R. E. Gimpie 
M. Gold 



T. E. Hansen 
J. F. Henry 
C. L. Hoffmann 
G. G. Karcher 
W. M. Lundy 
J. R. MacKay 
U. R. Miller 
W. E. Norris 
G. C. Park 
M. D. Rana 
B. W. Roberts 
S. C. Roberts 
F. J. Schaaf, Jr. 

A. Selz 

B. F. Shelley 
W. J. Sperko 
R. W. Swayne 



HONORARY MEMBERS (MAIN COMMITTEE) 



F. P. Barton 
L. J. Chockie 
T. M. Cullen 
W. D. Doty 
J. R. Farr 

G. E. Feigel 
R. C. Griffin 
O. F. Hedden 
E. J. Hemzy 



M. H. Jawad 
A. J. Justin 
W. G. Knecht 
J. LeCoff 
T. G. McCarty 
G. C. Millman 
R. A, Moen 
R. F. Reedy 
K. K. Tarn 



ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE 



J. G. Feldstein, Chair 
J. S. Brzuszkiewicz, Staff 

Secretary 
R. W. Barnes 
J. E. Batey 
T. L. Bedeaux 
D. L. Berger 



J. F. Henry 
U. R. Miller 
G. C. Park 
M. D. Rana 
B. F. Shelley 
W. J. Sperko 



J. M. Given, Jr. — North 

Carolina (Chair) 
J. T. Amato — Minnesota 

(Vice Chair) 
D. A. Douin — Ohio 

(Secretary) 
B. P. Anthony — Rhode Island 
R. D. Austin — Arizona 

B. F. Bailey — Illinois 
J. E. Bell — Michigan 
W. K. Brigham — New 

Hampshire 

C. W. Bryan — Tennessee 
M, A. Burns — Florida 

J. H. Burpee — Maine 

C. B. Cantrell — Nebraska 

D. C. Cook — California 

E. L. Creaser — New 
Brunswick, Canada 

W. E. Crider, jr. — Vermont 
P. L. Dodge — Nova Scotia, 

Canada 
S. Donovan — Northwest 

Territories, Canada 
D. Eastman — Newfoundland 

and Labrador, Canada 

C. Fulton — Alaska 
M. Graham — Oregon 
R. J. Handy — Kentucky 

D. R. Hannon — Arkansas 

E. G. Hilton — Virginia 

K. Hynes — Prince Edward 

Island, Canada 
D. T. Jagger — Ohio 

D. J. Jenkins — Kansas 

E. S. Kawa, Jr. — 
Massachusetts 



M. R. Klosterman — Iowa 
M. Kotb — Quebec, Canada 
K. J. Kraft — Maryland 

B. L. Krasiun — 
Saskatchewan, Canada 

K. T. Lau — Alberta, Canada 
W. McGivney — New York 
T. J. Monroe — Oklahoma 
S. V. Nelson — Colorado 
W. R. Owens — Louisiana 
R. P. Pate — Alabama 
R. L. Perry — Nevada 
H. D. Pfaff — South Dakota 
J. F. Porcella — West Virginia 
R. S. Pucek — Wisconsin 
R. D. Reetz — North Dakota 

C. F. Reyes — California 
T. W. Rieger — Manitoba, 

Canada 
K. A. Rudolph — Hawaii 
M. J. Ryan — Illinois 
T. S. Scholl — Ontario, 

Canada 
G. Scribner — Missouri 
R. Spiker — North Carolina 
T. Stewart — Montana 
R. K. Sturm — Utah 
W. Vallance — Michigan 
M. J. Verhagen — Wisconsin 
P. L. Vescio, Jr. — New York 
M. Washington — New Jersey 
K. L. Watson — Mississippi 
P. J. Welch — Georgia 
L. Williamson — Washington 
D.J. Willis — Indiana 



INTERNATIONAL INTEREST REVIEW GROUP 



MARINE CONFERENCE GROUP 



H. N. Patel, Chair 
J. S. Brzuszkiewicz, Staff 
Secretary 



J. G. Hungerbuhier, Jr. 
G. Pallichadath 
J. D. Reynolds 



V. Felix 
Y.-G. Kim 
S. H. Leong 
W. Lin 
O. F. Manafa 



C. Minu 
Y.-W. Park 
R. Reynaga 
P. Williamson 



PROJECT TEAM ON HYDROGEN TANKS 



Subgroup on General Requirements (BPV I) 



M. D. Rana, Chair 

A. P. Amato, Staff Secretary 

F. L. Brown 

D. A. Canonico 
D. C. Cook 
J. Coursen 
J. W. Felbaum 

B. D. Hawkes 
N. L. Newhouse 
K. Nibur 

A. S. Olivares 

G. B. Rawls, Jr. 

B. F. Shelley 
J. R. Sims, Jr. 
N. Sirosh 

J. H. Smith 
S. Staniszewski 
R. Subramanian 
T. Tahara 

D. W. Treadwell 

E. Upitis 
Y. Wada 



C. T. I. Webster 

R. C. Biel, Contributing 

Member 
J. Birdsall, Contributing 

Member 
M. Duncan, Contributing 

Member 

D. R. Frikken, Contributing 
Member 

L. E. Hayden, Jr., Contributing 

Member 
K. T. Lau, Contributing 

Member 
K. Oyamada, Contributing 

Member 
C. H. Rivkin, Contributing 

Member 
C. San March i, Contributing 

Member 
B. Somerday, Contributing 

Member 



COMMITTEE ON POWER BOILERS (BPV 1) 



D. L. Berger, Chair 

R. E. McLaughlin, Vice Chair 

U. D'Urso, Staff Secretary 

J. L. Arnold 

S. W. Cameron 

D. A. Canonico 

K. K. Coleman 

P. D. Edwards 

P. Fallouey 

J. G. Feldstein 

G. W. Galanes 

T. E. Hansen 

J. F. Henry 

J. S. Hunter 

W. L. Lowry 

J. R. MacKay 

F. Massi 



T. C. McGough 

P. A. Molvie 

Y. Oishi 

J. T. Pillow 

B. W. Roberts 

R. D. Schueler, Jr. 

J. P. Swezy, Jr. 

J. M. Tanzosh 

R. V. Wielgoszinski 

D.J.Willis 

G. Ardizzoia, Delegate 

H. Michael, Delegate 

E. M. Ortman, Alternate 

D. N. French, Honorary 

Member 
R. L. Williams, Honorary 

Member 



Subgroup on Design (BPV I) 



P. A. Molvie, Chair 
J. Vattappilly, Secretary 
D. I. Anderson 
P. Dhorajia 
J. P. Glaspie 
G. B. Komora 
J. C Light 
B. W. Moore 



R. D. Schueler, Jr. 
J. P. Swezy, Jr. 
S. V. Torkildson 
M. Wadkinson 
G. Ardizzoia, Delegate 
C. F. Jeerings, Contributing 
Member 



Subgroup on Fabrication and Examination (BPV I) 



J. T. Pillow, Chair 

G. W. Galanes, Secretary 

J. L Arnold 

D. L. Berger 

S. W. Cameron 

G. Dunker 

P. F. Gilston 

J. Hainsworth 



T. E. Hansen 

C. T. McDaris 

T. C. McGough 

R. E. McLaughlin 

R. J. Newell 

Y. Oishi 

J. P. Swezy, Jr. 

R. V. Wielgoszinski 



R. E. McLaughlin, Chair 
T. E. Hansen, Vice Chair 
F. Massi, Secretary 
P. D. Edwards 
W. L. Lowry 
T. C. McGough 
E. M. Ortman 
J. T. Pillow 



D. Tompkins 
S. V, Torkildson 
D. E. Tuttle 
M. Wadkinson 
R. V. Wielgoszinski 
D. J. Willis 

C. F. Jeerings, Contributing 
Member 



Subgroup on Heat Recovery Steam Generators (BPV I) 



T. E. Hansen, Chair 

D. Dziubinski, Secretary 

J. P. Bell 

L. R. Douglas 

J. Gertz 

G. B. Komora 

C. T. McDaris 

B. W. Moore 



Y. Oishi 
E. M. Ortman 
R. D. Schueler, Jr. 
J. C. Steverman, Jr. 
D. Tompkins 
S. V. Torkildson 
B. C Turczynski 



Subgroup on Locomotive Boilers (BPV I) 



L. Moedinger, Chair 
S. M. Butler, Secretary 
P. Boschan 
J. Braun 
J. D. Conrad 
R. C. Franzen, Jr. 
D. W. Griner 
S. D. Jackson 
M. A. Janssen 



S. A. Lee 

G. M. Ray 

G. L. Scerbo 

R. D. Schueler, Jr. 

R. B. Stone 

M. W. Westland 

W. L. Withuhn 

R. Yuill 



Subgroup on Materials (BPV I) 



B. W. Roberts, Chair 
J. S. Hunter, Secretary 
S. H. Bowes 
D. A. Canonico 
K. K. Coleman 
P. Fallouey 
G. W. Galanes 



K. L. Hayes 
J. F. Henry 
O. X. Li 
J. R. MacKay 
F. Masuyama 
D. W. Rahoi 
J. M. Tanzosh 



Subgroup on Piping (BPV I) 



T. E. Hansen, Chair 
D. Tompkins, Secretary 
D. L. Berger 
P. D. Edwards 
G. W. Galanes 



T. G. Kosmatka 
W. L. Lowry 
F. Massi 
T. C. McGough 
E. A. Whittle 



Subgroup on Solar Boilers (BPV I) 



J. S. Hunter, Chair 
J. R. Briggs 
G. W. Galanes 
R. E. Hearne 
P. L. Johnson 
D. J. Koza 



J. C. Light 
Y. Magen 
F. Massi 

S. V. Torkildson 
J. T. Trimble, Jr. 



COMMITTEE ON MATERIALS (BPV II) 



Subgroup on Nonferrous Alloys (BPV II) 



J. F. Henry, Chair 

D. W. Rahoi, Vice Chair 

N. Lobo, Staff Secretary 

F. Abe 

A. Appleton 

J. Cameron 

D. A. Canonico 

A. Chaudouet 
P. Fallouey 

J. R. Foulds 

D. W. Gandy 
M. H. Gilkey 
M. Gold 

J. F. Grubb 
J. A. Hall 
C. L. Hoffmann 
M, Katcher 
F. Masuyama 
R. K. Nanstad 
M. L. Nayyar 

B. W. Roberts 

E. Shapiro 

M. H. Skillingberg 
R. C. Sutherlin 
R. W. Swindeman 
J. M. Tanzosh 



D. Tyler 

D. Kwon, Delegate 
O. Oldani, Delegate 

W. R. Apblett, Jr., Contributing 

Member 
M. N. Bressler, Contributing 

Member 
H. D. Bushfield, Contributing 

Member 

E. G. Nisbett, Contributing 
Member 

E. Upitis, Contributing 

Member 
T. M. Cullen, Honorary 

Member 
W. D. Doty, Honorary 

Member 
W. D. Edsall, Honorary 

Member 
G. C. Hsu, Honorary Member 
R. A. Moen, Honorary 

Member 
C. E. Spaeder, Jr., Honorary 

Member 
A. W. Zeuthen, Honorary 

Member 



Subgroup on Externa! Pressure (BPV II) 



R. W. Mikitka, Chair 

J. A. A. Morrow, Secretary 

L. F. Campbell 

D. S. Griffin 

J. F. Grubb 

J. R. Harris III 



M. Katcher 
D. L. Kurle 
C. R. Thomas 

C. H. Sturgeon, Contributing 
Member 



M. Katcher, Chair 

R. C. Sutherlin, Secretary 

W. R. Apblett, Jr. 

M. H. Gilkey 

J. F. Grubb 

A, Heino 

J. Kissell 

T. M. Malota 

S. Matsumoto 



H. Matsuo 
J. A. McMaster 

D. W. Rahoi 

E. Shapiro 

M. H. Skillingberg 
D. Tyler 
R. Zawierucha 

H. D. Bushfield, Contributing 
Member 



Subgroup on Physical Properties (BPV II) 



J. F. Grubb, Chair 
H. D. Bushfield 



P. Fallouey 
E. Shapiro 



Subgroup on Strength, Ferrous Alloys (BPV IB) 



C. L Hoffmann, Chair 

J. M. Tanzosh, Secretary 

F. Abe 

W. R. Apblett, Jr. 

D. A. Canonico 
A. Di Rienzo 

P. Fallouey 
J. R. Foulds 
M. Gold 
j. A. Hall 
J. F. Henry 
K. Kimura 



F. Masuyama 
S. Matsumoto 
D. W. Rahoi 
B. W. Roberts 
M. S. Shelton 
J. P. Shingledecker 
M. J. Slater 
R. W. Swindeman 
T. P. Vassallo, Jr. 
H. Murakami, Contributing 
Member 



Subgroup on Ferrous Specifications (BPV II) 



A. Appleton, Chair 
R. M. Davison 

B. M. Dingman 
M. J. Dosdourian 
P. Fallouey 

T. Graham 
J. M. Grocki 
J. F. Grubb 
K. M. Hottle 
D. S. Janikowski 
D. C. Krouse 



L. J. Lavezzi 
W. C. Mack 
J. K. Mahaney 
R. J. Marciniec 
A. S. Melilli 
E. G. Nisbett 
K. E. Orie 
J. Shick 
E. Upitis 
R. Zawierucha 



Subgroup on International Material Specifications (BPV II) 



A. Chaudouet, Chair 

D. Dziubinski, Secretary 

S. W. Cameron 

D. A. Canonico 

P. Fallouey 

A. F. Garbolevsky 

D. O. Henry 

M. Ishikawa 

O. X. Li 



W. M. Lundy 
T. F. Miskell 
A. R. Nywening 
R. D. Schueler, Jr. 
E. Upitis 

D. Kwon, Delegate 
O. Oldani, Delegate 
H. Lorenz, Contributing 
Member 



Subgroup on Strength of Weldments (BPV II & BPV IX) 



J. M. Tanzosh, Chair 

W. F. Newell, Jr., Secretary 

S. H. Bowes 

K. K. Coleman 

P. D. Flenner 

J. R. Foulds 

D. W. Gandy 

M. Gold 



K. L. Hayes 
J. F. Henry 
D. W. Rahoi 
B. W. Roberts 
J. P. Shingledecker 
W. J. Sperko 
J. P. Swezy, Jr. 



Special Working Group on Nonmetallic Materials (BPV II) 



C. W. Rowley, Chair 
W. I. Adams 
F. L. Brown 
A. Crabtree 
S. R. Frost 



M. Golliet 
P. S. Hill 
M. R. Kessler 

E. Lever 

F. Worth 



COMMITTEE ON CONSTRUCTION OF NUCLEAR FACILITY 
COMPONENTS (BPV III) 



Working Group on Core Support Structures (SG-D) (BPV BIB) 



R. W. Barnes, Chair 

J. R. Cole, Vice Chair 

M. L. Vazquez, Staff Secretary 

W. H. Borter 

M. N. Bressler 

T. D. Burchell 

R. P. Deubler 

A. C. Eberhardt 

B. A. Erler 
G. M. Foster 
R. S. Hill Ml 

C. L. Hoffmann 
R. M. Jessee 

V. Kostarev 
W. C. LaRocheile 
K. A. Manoly 
W. N. McLean 
M. N. Mitchell 

D. K. Morton 
R. F. Reedy 

J. D. Stevenson 



K. R. Wichman 
C. S. Withers 
Y. H. Choi, Delegate 
T. I us, Delegate 
H.-T. Wang, Delegate 

C. C. Kim, Contributing 
Member 

E. B. Branch, Honorary 

Member 
P. Chilukuri, Honorary 

Member 
G. D. Cooper, Honorary 

Member 
W. D. Doty, Honorary 

Member 

D. F. Landers, Honorary 
Member 

R. A. Moen, Honorary 

Member 
C. J. Pieper, Honorary 

Member 



Subgroup on Containment Systems for Spent Fuel 
and High-Level Waste Transport Packagings (BPV SIB) 



G. M. Foster, Chair 

G. J. Solovey, Vice Chair 

D. K. Morton, Secretary 

D. J. Ammerman 

W. G. Beach 

G. Bjorkman 

W. H. Borter 

G. R. Canneil 

J. L. Gorczyca 

R. S. Hill III 

S. Horowitz 

D. W. Lewis 



C. G. May 
P. E. McConnell 
I. D. Mclnnes 
A. B. Meichler 
R. E. Nickell 
E. L. Pleins 
T. Saegusa 
H. P. Shrivastava 
N. M. Simpson 
R. H. Smith 
J. D. Stevenson 
C. J. Temus 



Subgroup on Component Design (BPV EEI) 



R. S. Hill III, Chair 
T. M. Adams, Vice Chair 
A. N. Nguyen, Secretary 
S. Asada 

C. W. Bruny 
J. R. Cole 

R. E. Cornman, Jr. 
A. A. Dermenjian 
R. P. Deubler 
P. Hirschberg 
R. I. jetter 
R. B. Keating 
H. Kobayashi 

D. F. Landers 
K. A. Manoly 



R. J. Masterson 

D. E. Matthews 
W. N. McLean 
J. C. Minichiello 
T. Nagata 

E. L. Pleins 
I, Saito 

G. C. Slagis 
J. D. Stevenson 
J. P. Tucker 
K. R. Wichman 
J. Yang 

T. I us, Delegate 
M. N. Bressler, Contributing 
Member 



Working Group on Supports (SG-D) (BPV ill) 



R. J. Masterson, Chair 

F. J. Birch, Secretary 

K. Avrithi 

T. H. Baker 

U. S. Bandyopadhyay 

R. P. Deubler 

W. P. Goiini 



A. N. Nguyen 
I. Saito 
j. R. Stinson 
T. G. Terryah 
G. Z. Tokarski 
C.-I. Wu 



J. Yang, Chair 
J. F. Kielb, Secretary 
F. G. Al-Chammas 
H. S. Mehta 



A. Tsirigotis 

J. T. Land, Contributing 
Member 



Working Group on Design Methodology (SG-D) (BPV Bll) 



R. B. Keating, Chair 

S. D. Snow, Secretary 

K, Avrithi 

M. Basol 

R. D. Blevins 

D. L. Caldwell 

H. T. Harrison III 

P. Hirschberg 

H. Kobayashi 

H. Lockert 

J. F. McCabe 

A. N. Nguyen 



D. H. Roarty 

E. A. Rodriguez 
J. D. Stevenson 
A. Tsirigotis 

T. M. Wiger 

J. Yang 

D. F. Landers, Corresponding 

Member 
M. K. Au-Yang, Contributing 

Member 
W. S. Lapay, Contributing 

Member 



Working Group on Design of Division 3 Containments 
(SG-D) (BPV III) 



E. L. Pleins, Chair 
D. J. Ammerman 
G. Bjorkman 
S. Horowitz 
D. W. Lewis 
j. C. Minichiello 
D. K. Morton 



H. P. Shrivastava 

C. J. Temus 

I. D. Mclnnes, Contributing 

Member 
R. E. Nickell, Contributing 

Member 



Working Group on Piping (SG-D) (BPV III) 



P. Hirschberg, Chair 

G. Z. Tokarski, Secretary 

T. M. Adams 

G. A. Antaki 

C. Basavaraju 

J. Catalano 

F. Claeys 

J. R. Cole 

M. A. Gray 

R. W. Haupt 

J. Kawahata 

R. B. Keating 

V. Kostarev 

Y. Liu 

J. F. McCabe 

J. C. Minichiello 



I. K. Nam 
E. R. Nelson 
A. N. Nguyen 
N.J. Shah 
M. S. Sills 
G. C. Slagis 
N. C. Sutherland 
E. A. Wais 
C.-I. Wu 

D. F. Landers, Corresponding 
Member 

R. D. Patel, Contributing 
Member 

E. C. Rodabaugh, Honorary 
Member 



Working Group on Probabilistic Methods in Design 
(SG-D) (BPV Ell) 



R. S. Hill III, Chair 

N. A. Palm, Secretary 

T. Asayama 

K. Avrithi 

B. M. Ayyub 

A. A. Dermenjian 

M. R. Graybeal 

D. O. Henry 

S. D. Kulat 



A. McNeill III 
M. Morishita 
P. J. O'Regan 
I. Saito 

M. E. Schmidt 
A. Tsirigotis 
J. P. Tucker 
R. M. Wilson 



R. E. Cornman, 
P. W. Behnke 
M. D. Eftychiou 
A. Fraser 
R. Ghanbari 
M. Higuchi 



Working Group on Pumps (SG-D) (BPV III) 
Chair 



Subgroup on Materials, Fabrication, and Examination (BPV III) 



R. A. Ladefian 
J. W. Leavitt 
R. A. Patrick 
R. Udo 
A. G. Washburn 



Working Group on Valves (SG-D) (BPV HI) 



J. P. Tucker, Chair 

J. O'Callaghan, Secretary 

G. A. Jolly 

W. N. McLean 

T. A. McMahon 

C. A. Mizer 



J. D. Page 
K. E. Reid II 
S. N. Shields 
H. R. Sonderegger 
P. Vock 



Working Group on Vessels (SG-D) (BPV III) 



D. E. Matthews, Chair 

R. M. Wilson, Secretary 

C. Basavaraju 

C. W. Bruny 

J. V. Gregg Jr. 

W. J. Heilker 

A. Kalnins 



R. B. Keating 
O.-S. Kim 
K. Matsunaga 
P. K. Shah 
C Turyio 
D. Vlaicu 
W. F. Weitze 



Special Working Group on Environmental Effects (SG-D) (BPV III) 



W. Z. Novak, Chair 
R. S. Hill III 



C. L. Hoffmann 

Y. H. Choi, Delegate 



Subgroup on General Requirements (BPV III & 3C) 



W. C. LaRochelle, Chair 
L. M. PI ante, Secretary 
A. Appieton 
J. R. Berry 
M. N. Bressler 
J. V. Gardiner 
W. P. Golini 
J. W. Highlands 



G. L. Hollinger 
R. P. Mclntyre 
M. R. Minick 

C. T. Smith 

W. K. Sowder, Jr. 

D, M. Vickery 
C. S. Withers 

H. Michael, Delegate 



Working Group on Duties and Responsibilities (SG-GR) (BPV III) 



J. V. Gardiner, Chair 

G. L. Hollinger, Secretary 

J. R. Berry 

Y. Diaz-Castillo 

G. Gratti 

M. E. Jennings 



K. A. Kavanagh 
M. A. Lockwood 
L. M. Plante 
D. J. Roszman 
S. Scardigno 



Working Group on Quality Assurance, Certification, and 
Stamping (SG-GR) (BPV III) 



C. T. Smith, Chair 

C. S. Withers, Secretary 

A. Appieton 

B. K. Bobo 

S. M. Goodwin 
J. W. Highlands 
R. P. Mclntyre 
M. R. Minick 



R. B. Patel 
E. C. Renaud 
S. J. Salvador 
W. K. Sowder, Jr. 
J. F. Strunk 
M. F. Sullivan 
G. E. Szabatura 
D. M. Vickery 



C. L. Hoffmann, Chair 

W. G. Beach 

W, H. Borter 

G. R. Cannell 

R. H. Davis 

G. M. Foster 

B. D. Frew 

G. B. Georgiev 

S. E. Gingrich 

R. M. Jessee 



C. C Kim 

M. Lau 

H. Murakami 

J. Ossmann 

N. M. Simpson 

W. J. Sperko 

J. R. Stinson 

J. F. Strunk 

K. B. Stuckey 

H. Michael, Delegate 



Subgroup on Pressure Relief (BPV III) 



J. F. Ball, Chair 
E. M. Petrosky 



A. L. Szeglin 
D. G. Thibault 



Executive Committee on Strategy and Management 
(BPV III, Divisions 1 and 2) 



J. R. Cole, Chair 

C. A. Sanna, Staff Secretary 

R. W. Barnes 

B. K. Bobo 

N. Broom 

B. A. Erler 

C. M. Faidy 
J. M. Helmey 
R. S. Hill III 
E. V. Imbro 



R. M. Jessee 
K. A. Manoly 
D. K. Morton 
J. Ramirez 
R. F. Reedy 
C. T. Smith 
W. K. Sowder, Jr. 
Y. Urabe 

M. F. Sullivan, Contributing 
Member 



China International Group (BPV III) 

C. A. Sanna, Staff Secretary J. Yan 

Y. Chen Z. Yan 

G. Tang Z. Zhong 



Special Working Group for New Advanced Light Water Reactor 
Plant Construction Issues (BPV III) 



C. A. Sanna, Chair 
A. Cardillo 
J. Honcharik 
E. V. Imbro 



E. L. Pleins 
J. A. Schulz 
M. C. Scott 
R. R. Stevenson 



Subgroup on Editing and Review (BPV III) 



D. K. Morton, Chair 
W. H. Borter 
M. N. Bressler 
R. P. Deubler 



B. A. Erler 
W. C. LaRochelle 
R. F. Reedy 
J. D. Stevenson 



Subgroup on Management Resources (BPV III) 



R. M. Jessee, Chair 
V. Broz 
I. I. jeong 



J. McLean 
B. S. Sandhu 



Subgroup on Polyethylene Pipe (BPV 111) 

J. C. Minichiello, Chair 
T. M. Adams 
W. I. Adams 



Subgroup on High-Temperature Reactors (BPV 111) 



C. A. Antaki 

C. Basavaraju 
S. J. Boros 

D. Burwell 
A. Crabtree 
J. M. Craig 
R. R. Croft 

E. L. Farrow 
E. M. Focht 
M. Golliet 

A. N. Haddad 



R. S. Hill 11! 

P. Krishnaswamy 

E. Lever 

E. W. McElroy 
D. P. Munson 
T. M. Musto 

L. J. Petroff 
C. W. Rowley 

F. J. Schaaf, Jr. 

C. T. Smith 
H. E. Svetlik 

D. M. Vickery 
Z. I. Zhou 



Working Group on Nuclear High-Temperature 
Gas-Cooled Reactors (BPV SSI) 



N. Broom, Chair 

J. E. Nestell, Secretary 

T. D. Burchell 

R. S. Hill III 

W. Hoffelner 

E. V. Imbro 

R. I. Jetter 



Y. W. Kim 
T. R. Lupoid 
D. L. Marriott 
D. K. Morton 
T.-L. Sham 
Y. Tachibana 
T. Yuhara 



Subgroup on Graphite Core Components (BPV IIS) 

T. D. Burchell, Chair 
C. A. Sanna, Staff Secretary 
A. Appleton 
R. L. Bratton 



S.-H. Chi 
M. W. Davies 
S. W. Doms 
S. F. Duffy 
B. D. Frew 
O. Gelineau 
S. T. Gonczy 



G. O. Hayner 
M. P. Hindley 
Y. Katoh 
M. N. Mitchell 
N. N. Nemeth 
T. Oku 
J. Ossmann 
T. Shibata 
M. Srinivasan 
A. G. Steer 
S. Yu 



Subgroup on Industry Experience for New Plants 
(BPV III & BPV XI) 



G. M. Foster, Chair 


O.-S. Kim 


J. T. Lindberg, Chair 


K. Matsunaga 


H. L. Gustin, Secretary 


D. E. Matthews 


V. L. Armentrout 


R. E. McLaughlin 


T. L. Chan 


J. Ossmann 


M. L. Coats 


R. D. Pate! 


A. A. Dermenjian 


j. C. Poehler 


J. Fletcher 


D. W. Sandusky 


E. B. Gerlach 


R. R. Schaefer 


D. O. Henry 


D. M. Swann 


J. Honcharik 


T. Tsuruta 


E. V. Imbro 


E. R. Willis 


C C. Kim 


S. M. Yee 


Subgroup on 


Fusion Energy Devices 




(BPV III) 


W. K. Sowder, Jr., Chair 


S. Lee 


D. Andrei, Staff Secretary 


G. Li 


R. W. Barnes 


X. Li 


M. Higuchi 


P. Mokaria 


G. Holtmeier 


D. J. Roszman 


K. A. Kavanagh 


S. j. Salvador 


H.-J. Kim 





M. Morishita, Chair 
R. I. Jetter, Vice Chair 
T.-L. Sham, Secretary 
N. Broom 
T. D. Burchell 



W. Hoffelner 
G. H. Koo 
D. K. Morton 
j. E. Nestell 
N. N. Ray 



Working Group on Liquid MetaS Reactors (BPV ISI) 



T.-L. Sham, Chair 

T. Asayama, Secretary 

R. W. Barnes 

P. Carter 

C. M. Faidy 

W. Hoffelner 



R. I. Jetter 
G. H. Koo 
M. Li 

S. Majumdar 
M. Morishita 
J. E. Nestell 



Subgroup on Design Analysis (BPV SIS) 



G. L. Hollinger, Chair 
W. F. Weitze, Secretary 
S. A. Adams 
M. R. Breach 
R. G. Brown 
T. M. Damiani 

B. F. Hantz 

C. F. Heberling II 

C. E. Hinnant 

D. P. Jones 
A. Kalnins 



W. J. Koves 
K. Matsunaga 
G. A. Miller 
W. D. Reinhardt 
D. H. Roarty 
G. Sannazzaro 
T. G. Seipp 
G. Taxacher 
R. A. Whipple 
K. Wright 



Subgroup on Elevated Temperature Design (BPV SIS) 



R. I. Jetter, Chair 
T.-L. Sham, Secretary 
J. J. Abou-Hanna 
T. Asayama 

C. Becht IV 
F. W. Brust 
P. Carter 

J. F. Cervenka 
B. Dogan 

D. S. Griffin 
B. F. Hantz 
W. Hoffelner 



A. B. Hull 
M. H. Jawad 
G. H. Koo 
W. J. Koves 
M. Li 

S. Majumdar 
D. L. Marriott 
T. E. McGreevy 
J. E. Nestell 
W. J. O'Donnell 
R. W. Swindeman 



Subgroup on Fatigue Strength (BPV S1E) 



W. J. O'Donnell, Chair 


G. Kharshafdjian 


S. A. Adams 


S. Majumdar 


G. S. Chakrabarti 


S. N. Malik 


T. M. Damiani 


R. Nayal 


P. R. Donavin 


D. H. Roarty 


R. J. Gurdal 


M. S. Shelton 


C. F. Heberling II 


G. Taxacher 


C. E. Hinnant 


A. Tsirigotis 


P. Hirschberg 


K. Wright 


D. P. Jones 


H. H. Ziada 



JOINT ACI-ASME COMMITTEE ON 
CONCRETE COMPONENTS FOR NUCLEAR SERVICE (BPV 3C) 



A. C. Eberhardt, Chair 

C. T, Smith, Vice Chair 

M. L. Vazquez, Staff Secretary 

N. Alchaar 

J. F. Artuso 

C. J. Bang 

F. Farzam 

P. S. Ghosal 
J. Gutierrez 
j, K. Harrold 

G. A. Harstead 
M. F. Hessheimer 
T. C. Inman 

O. Jovall 
N.-H. Lee 
J. Munshi 
N. Orbovic 



B. B. Scott 

R. E. Shewmaker 

J. D. Stevenson 

M. L Williams 

T. D. Al-Shawaf, Contributing 

Member 
B. A. Erler, Contributing 

Member 
T. E. Johnson, Contributing 

Member 
T. Muraki, Contributing 

Member 
M. R. Senecal, Contributing 

Member 
M. K. Thumm, Contributing 

Member 



Working Group on Design (BPV 3C) 



J. Munshi, Chair 
N. Alchaar 
L. J. Colarusso 
A, C. Eberhardt 

F. Farzam 

P. S. Ghosal 
J. K. Harrold 

G. A. Harstead 



M. F. Hessheimer 
T. C. Inman 
T. E. Johnson 
O. Jovall 
N.-H. Lee 
J. D. Stevenson 
M. K. Thumm 



Working Group on Materials, Fabrication, and Examination 
(BPV 3C) 



Subgroup on Care and Operation of Heating Boilers (BPV IV) 

P. A. Molvie 

Subgroup on Cast Iron Boilers (BPV IV) 



K. M. McTague, Chair 
T. L. Bedeaux, Vice Chair 
J. P. Chicoine 
B. G. French 
J. A. Hall 



V. G. Kleftis 

J. L Kliess 

E. A. Nordstrom 

M. T. Roby, Alternate 



Subgroup on Materials (BPV IV) 

J. A. Hall, Chair A. Heino 

M. Wadkinson, Vice Chair B. J. Iske 

J. Calland J. L Kliess 



Subgroup on Water Heaters (BPV IV) 



J. Calland, Chair 
J. P. Chicoine 
B. G. French 
T. D. Gantt 
B. J. Iske 
K. M. McTague 



O. A. Missoum 

R. E. Olson 

F. J. Schreiner 

M. A. Taylor 

T. E. Trant 

M. T. Roby, Alternate 



Subgroup on Welded Boilers (BPV IV) 



J. Calland, Chair 
T. L. Bedeaux 
C. M. Dove 
B. G. French 
E. A. Nordstrom 
R. E. Olson 



M. Wadkinson 
R. V. Wielgoszinski 
H. Michael, Delegate 
J.-M. Andre, Contributing 
Member 



J. F. Artuso, Chair J. Gutierrez 

P. S. Ghosal, Vice Chair B. B. Scott 

M. L. Williams, Secretary C. T. Smith 

A. C. Eberhardt J. F. Strunk 



Working Group on Modernization (BPV 3C) 



N. Alchaar, Chair 
O. Jovall, Vice Chair 
C. T. Smith, Secretary 
J. F. Artuso 



J. K. Harrold 
N. Orbovic 
M. A. Ugalde 



COMMITTEE ON HEATING BOILERS (BPV IV) 



T. L. Bedeaux, Chair 
J. A. Hall, Wee Chair 
G. Moino, Staff Secretary 
J. Calland 
J. P. Chicoine 

C. M. Dove 
B. G. French 
W. L. Haag, Jr. 

A. Heino 

B. J. Iske 

D. J. Jenkins 



J. L. Kleiss 

M. R. Klosterman 

K. M. McTague 

P. A. Molvie 

B. W. Moore 

R. E. Olson 

T. M. Parks 

R. V. Wielgoszinski 

H. Michael, Delegate 

D. Pi cart, Delegate 

E. A. Nordstrom, Alternate 



COMMITTEE ON 
NONDESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION (BPV V) 



J. E. Batey, Chair 

F. B. Kovacs, Vice Chair 
J. S. Brzuszkiewicz, Staff 

Secretary 
S. J. Akrin 
C. A. Anderson 
J. E. Aycock 
A. S. Birks 
P. L. Brown 
M. A. Burns 
N. Y. Faransso 
A. F. Garboievsky 

G. W. Hembree 
R. W. Kruzic 

J. R. McGirnpsey 



M. D. Moles 

A. B. Nagel 
T. L. Plasek 

F. J. Sattler 

G. M. Gatti, Delegate 

B. H. Clark, Jr., Honorary 
Member 

H. C. Graber, Honorary 

Member 
O. F. Hedden, Honorary 

Member 
J. R. Mac Kay, Honorary 

Member 
T. G. McCarty, Honorary 

Member 



Subgroup on General Requirements/ 
Personnel Qualifications and Inquiries (BPV V) 



F. B. Kovacs, Chair 
C. A. Anderson 
J. E. Aycock 
J. E. Batey 
A. S. Birks 



N. Y. Faransso 
G. W. Hembree 
J. W. Houf 
J. R. MacKay 
J. P. Swezy, Jr. 



Subgroup on Surface Examination Methods (BPV V) 

J. E. Aycock, Chair N. Farrenbaugh 

S. J. Akrin N. A. Finney 

A. S. Birks G. W. Hembree 
P. L. Brown R. W. Kruzic 

B. Caccamise F. J. Sattler 

N. Y. Faransso G. M. Gatti, Delegate 

Subgroup on Volumetric Methods (BPV V) 



Subgroup on Design (BPV VIII) 



G. W. Hembree, Chair 

S. J. Akrin 

J. E. Aycock 

J. E. Batey 

P. L. Brown 

B. Caccamise 

N. Y. Faransso 

A. F. Garbolevsky 

J. F. Halley 



R. W. Hardy 
F. B. Kovacs 
R. W. Kruzic 
J. R. McGimpsey 
M. D. Moles 
A. B. Nagel 
T. L. Plasek 

F. J. Sattler 

G. M. Gatti, Delegate 



Working Group on Acoustic Emissions (SG-VM) (BPV V) 
N. Y. Faransso, Chair J. E. Batey 

J. E. Aycock R. K. Miller 

Working Group on Radiography (SG-VM) (BPV V) 
B. Kovacs, Chair R. W. Hardy 

G. W. Hembree 
R. W. Kruzic 
J. R. McGimpsey 
R.J. Mills 
A. B. Nagel 



J. Akrin 

E. Aycock 

E. Batey 
P. L. Brown 
B. Caccamise 
N. Y. Faransso T. L. Plasek 

A. F. Garbolevsky D. E. Williams 

Working Group on Ultrasonics (SG-VM) (BPV V) 

R. W. Kruzic, Chair J. F. Halley 

J. E. Aycock O. F. Hedden 

B. Caccamise M. D. Moles 
K. J. Chizen A. B. Nagel 
N. Y. Faransso F. J. Sattler 
N. A. Finney 

Working Group on Guided Wave Ultrasonic Testing (SG-VM) 
(BPV V) 

N. Y. Faransso, Chair M. D. Moles 

J. F. Halley 

COMMITTEE ON PRESSURE VESSELS (BPV VSI!) 



U. R. Miller, Chair 

R. J. Basile, Vice Chair 

S. J. Rossi, Staff Secretary 

T. Schellens, Staff Secretary 

V. Bogosian 

J. Cameron 

A. Chaudouet 

D. B. DeMichael 

J. P. Glaspie 

M. Gold 

J. F. Grubb 

L. E. Hayden, Jr. 

G. G. Karcher 

K. T. Lau 

J. S. Lee 

R. Mahadeen 

R. W. Mikitka 

K. Mokhtarian 

C. C. Neely 

T. W. Norton 

T. P. Pastor 



D. T. Peters 
M. J. Pischke 
M. D. Rana 

G. B. Rawls, Jr. 
S. C. Roberts 
CD, Rodery 
A. Selz 
J. R. Sims, Jr. 

E. Soltow 

D. A. Swanson 
K. K. Tarn 

S. Terada 

E. Upitis 

P. A. McGowan, Delegate 
H. Michael, Delegate 
K. Oyamada, Delegate 
M. E. Papponetti, Delegate 
D. Rui, Delegate 
T. Tahara, Delegate 
W. S. Jacobs, Contributing 
Member 



R. J. Basile, Chair 

M. D. Lower, Secretary 

O. A. Barsky 

F. L. Brown 
J. R. Farr 

C. E. Hinnant 
M. H. Jawad 
R. W. Mikitka 
U. R. Miller 
K. Mokhtarian 
T. P. Pastor 
M. D. Rana 

G. B. Rawls, Jr. 
S. C. Roberts 
C. D. Rodery 



A. Selz 
S. C. Shah 
J. C. Sowinski 

C. H. Sturgeon 

D. A. Swanson 
K. K. Tarn 

J. Vattappilly 
R. A. Whipple 
A. A. Gibbs, Delegate 
K. Oyamada, Delegate 
M. E. Papponetti, Delegate 
W. S. Jacobs, Corresponding 
Member 

E. L. Thomas, Jr., Honorary 
Member 



Subgroup on Fabrication and Inspection (BPV VMS) 



CD. Rodery, Chair 

J. P. Swezy, Jr., Vice Chair 

B. R. Morelock, Secretary 

J. L. Arnold 

W. J. Bees 

L. F. Campbell 

H. E. Gordon 

D. J. Kreft 

J. S. Lee 

D. I. Morris 



M. J. Pischke 
M. J. Rice 
B. F. Shelley 
P. L. Sturgill 
T. Tahara 

K. Oyamada, Delegate 
R. Uebel, Delegate 
W. S. Jacobs, Contributing 
Member 



Subgroup on General Requirements (BPV VIII) 



S. C Roberts, Chair 

D. B. DeMichael, Vice Chair 

F. L. Richter, Secretary 

R.J. Basile 

V. Bogosian 

D. T. Davis 

J. P. Glaspie 

L. E. Hayden, Jr. 

K. T. Lau 

M. D. Lower 



C C Neely 

A. S. Olivares 

J. C Sowinski 

D. B. Stewart 

D. A. Swanson 

K. K. Tarn 

A. A. Gibbs, Delegate 

K. Oyamada, Delegate 

R. Uebel, Delegate 



Subgroup on Heat Transfer Equipment (BPV VIII) 



R. Mahadeen, Chair 
T. W. Norton, Wee Chair 
G. Aurioles, Sr., Secretary 
S. R. Babka 
J. H. Barbee 

0. A. Barsky 

1. G. Campbell 
A. Chaudouet 
M. D. Clark 

J. I. Gordon 
M. J. Holtz 

F. E. Jehrio 

G. G. Karcher 



D. L. Kurle 

B. J. Lerch 

S. Mayeux 

U. R. Miller 

R. J. Stastny 

R. P. Wiberg 

K. Oyamada, Delegate 

F. Osweiller, Corresponding 

Member 
S. Yokel I, Corresponding 

Member 
S. M. Caldwell, Honorary 

Member 



Subgroup on High-Pressure Vessels (BPV Vlli) 



Task Group on Design (BPV VIM) 



D. T. Peters, Chair 
A. P. Maslowski, Staff 

Secretary 
L P. Antalffy 
R. C. Biel 
P. N. Chaku 
R. Cordes 
R. D. Dixon 
L. Fridlund 
D. M. Fryer 
R. T. Hallman 
A. H. Honza 
M. M. James 
P. Jansson 
J. A. Kapp 
J. Keltjens 
D. P. Kendall 
A. K. Khare 
S. C. Mordre 



E. A. Rodriguez 

E. D. Roll 

J. R. Sims, Jr. 
D. L. Stang 

F. W. Tatar 
S. Terada 

J. L. Traud 

R. Wink 

K. Oyamada, Delegate 

R. M. Hoshman, Contributing 

Member 
M. D. Mann, Contributing 

Member 

G. J. Mraz, Contributing 
Member 

D. J. Burns, Honorary Member 

E. H. Perez, Honorary 
Member 



Subgroup on Materials (BPV Vlli) 



J. F. Grubb, Chair 

J. Cameron, Vice Chair 

P. G. Wittenbach, Secretary 

A. Di Rienzo 

M. Gold 

M. Katcher 

W. M. Lundy 

D. W. Rahoi 
R. C. Sutherlin 

E. Upitis 



K. Oyamada, Delegate 
E. E. Morgenegg, 

Corresponding Member 
E, G. Nisbett, Corresponding 

Member 
G. S. Dixit, Contributing 

Member 
J. A. McMaster, Contributing 

Member 



Subgroup on Toughness (BPV II & BPV VIII) 



D. A. Swanson, Chair 

J. L. Arnold 

R.J. Basile 

J. Cameron 

H. E. Gordon 

W. S. Jacobs 

D. L. Kurle 

K. Mokhtarian 



C. C. Neely 

M. D. Rana 

F. L. Richter 

J. P. Swezy, Jr. 

E. Upitis 

J. Vattappilly 

K. Oyamada, Delegate 



Special Working Group on Graphite Pressure Equipment 
(BPV Vlli) 



E. Soltow, Chair 
T. F. Bonn 

F. L. Brown 

R. W. Dickerson 



B. Lukasch 
S. Malone 
M. R. Minick 
A. A. Stupica 



Special Working Group on Bolted Flanged joints (BPV VIII) 



R. W. Mikitka, Chair 
G. D. Bibel 
W. Brown 



W. J. Koves 
M. 5. Shelton 



J. Keltjens, Chair 
R. C. Biel 
D, J. Burns 
R. Cordes 
R. D. Dixon 
L. Fridlund 
D. M. Fryer 
R. T. Hallman 
D. P. Kendall 
S. C Mordre 



G. T. Nelson 
E. H. Perez 

D. T. Peters 

E. D. Roll 

J. R. Sims, Jr. 
D. L. Stang 
S. Terada 
J. L. Traud 
R. Wink 



Task Group on Materials (BPV VIII) 



F. W. Tatar, Chair 
L. P. Antalffy 
P. N. Chaku 



M. M. James 
J. A. Kapp 
A. K. Khare 



Task Group on Impulsively Loaded Vessels (BPV VIII) 



R. E. Nickell, Chair 

E. A. Rodriguez, Vice Chair 

P. O. Leslie, Secretary 

G. A. Antaki 

J. K. Asahina 

D. D. Barker 

D. W. Bowman 

A. M. Clayton 

J. E. Didiake, Jr. 
T. A. Duffey 

B. L. Haroldsen 
H. L. Heaton 



D. Hilding 

K. W. King 

R. Kitamura 

R. A. Leishear 

F. Ohlson 

C. Romero 

J. E. Shepherd 

Q. Dong, Corresponding 

Member 
M. Yip, Corresponding 

Member 
C. R. Vaught, Alternate 



COMMITTEE ON WELDING AND BRAZING (BPV SX) 



W. J. Sperko, Chair 

D. A. Bowers, Vice Chair 

S. J. Rossi, Staff Secretary 

M. Bernasek 

R. K. Brown, Jr. 

M. L. Carpenter 

J. G. Feldstein 

P. D. Flenner 

R. M. Jessee 

J. S. Lee 

W. M. Lundy 

T. Melfi 

W. F. Newell, Jr. 

B. R. Newmark 

A. S. Olivares 



M. J. Pischke 

M. J. Rice 

M. B. Sims 

M. J. Stanko 

J. P. Swezy, Jr. 

P. L. Van Fosson 

R. R. Young 

S. A. Jones, Contributing 

Member 
S. Raghunathan, Contributing 

Member 
W. D. Doty, Honorary 

Member 
S. D. Reynolds, Jr., Honorary 

Member 



Subgroup on Brazing (BPV IX) 



M. J. Pischke, Chair 
E. W. Beckman 
L. F. Campbell 



M. L. Carpenter 
A. F. Garbolevsky 
J. P. Swezy, Jr. 



Subgroup on General Requirements (BPV IX) 



B. R. Newmark, Chair 
E. W. Beckman 
P. R. Evans 
A. Howard 
R. M. Jessee 
A. S. Olivares 



H. B. Porter 

P. L Sturgill 

K. R. Willens 

E. W. Woelfe! 

E. Molina, Delegate 



Subgroup on Materials (BPV IX) 

M. L. Carpenter, Chair S. D. Reynolds, Jr. 

J. L. Arnold C. E. Sainz 

M. Bernasek W. J. Sperko 

S. E. Gingrich M. J. Stanko 

R. M. Jessee P. L. Sturgill 

C. C. Kim R. R. Young 

T. Melfi V. G. V. Giunto, Delegate 

Subgroup on Performance Qualification (BPV IX) 

D. A. Bowers, Chair K. L. Hayes 
V. A. Bell J. S. Lee 

M. A. Boring W. M. Lundy 

R. B. Corbit E. G. Reichelt 

P. R. Evans M. B. Sims 

P. D, Flenner 

Subgroup on Procedure Qualification (BPV IX) 
D. A. Bowers, Chair M. B. Sims 

M. J. Rice, Secretary W. J. Sperko 

M. Bernasek S. A. Sprague 

M. A. Boring J. P. Swezy, jr. 

R. K. Brown, Jr. P. L. Van Fosson 

J. R. McGimpsey T. C. Wiesner 

W. F. Newell, Jr. E. Molina, Delegate 

A. S. Olivares 

COMMITTEE ON 
FIBER-REINFORCED PLASTIC PRESSURE VESSELS (BPV X) 



Executive Committee (BPV XI) 



D. Eisberg, Chair 

P. D. Stumpf, Staff Secretary 

F. L. Brown 

J. L. Bustillos 

T. W. Cowley 

I. L. Dinovo 

T. J. Fowler 

M. R. Gorman 

D. H. Hodgkinson 

L E. Hunt 

D. L. Keeler 



B. M. Linnemann 
N. L Newhouse 
D. J. Painter 
G. Ramirez 
J. R. Richter 
J. A. Rolston 
B. F. Shelley 
F. W. Van Name 
D. O. Yancey, Jr. 
P. H. Ziehl 



COMMITTEE ON 
NUCLEAR INSERVICE INSPECTION (BPV XI) 



G. C. Park, Chair 

R. W. Swayne, Vice Chair 

R. L. Crane, Staff Secretary 

V. L. Armentrout 

W. H. Bamford, Jr. 

T. L. Chan 

R. C. Cipolla 

D. D. Davis 
G. H. DeBoo 
R. L. Dyle 

E. L. Farrow 
J, Fletcher 

E. B. Gerlach 
R. E. Gimple 
T. J. Griesbach 
K. Hasegawa 
D. O. Henry 
R. D. Kerr 
S. D. Kulat 
G. L Lagleder 
D. W. Lamond 
G. A. Lofthus 
W. E. Norris 
J. E. O'Sullivan 
A. S. Reed 



R. K. Rhyne 
D. A. Scarth 

F. j. Schaaf, Jr. 

j. C. Spanner, Jr. 

K. B. Thomas 

D. E. Waskey 

R. A. West 

C. J. Wirtz 

R. A. Yonekawa 

T. Yuhara 

H. D. Chung, Delegate 

J. T. Lindberg, Alternate 

G. L. Stevens, Alternate 
L. J. Chockie, Honorary 

Member 
C. D. Cowfer, Honorary 

Member 
F. E. Gregor, Honorary 

Member 
O. F. Hedden, Honorary 

Member 
P. C. Riccardelia, Honorary 

Member 
K. K. Yoon, Honorary Member 



R. W. Swayne, Chair 
G. C. Park, Vice Chair 
R. L. Crane, Staff Secretary 
W. H. Bamford, Jr. 
R. L Dyle 
R. E. Gimple 
J. T. Lindberg 



W. E. Norris 

R. K. Rhyne 

J. C. Spanner, Jr. 

K. B. Thomas 

R. A. West 

R. A. Yonekawa 



Subgroup on Evaluation Standards (SG-ES) (BPV XI) 



W. H. Bamford, Jr., Chair 

G. L. Stevens, Secretary 

H. D. Chung 

R. C. Cipolla 

G. H. DeBoo 

R. L. Dyle 

B. R. Ganta 

T. J. Griesbach 

K. Hasegawa 

K. Hojo 

D. N. Hopkins 

Y. Imamura 

Working Group on Flaw 

R. C. Cipolla, Chair 

G. H. DeBoo, Secretary 

W. H. Bamford, Jr. 

M. Basol 

B. Bezensek 

H. D. Chung 

B. R. Ganta 

R. G. Gilada 

H. L. Gustin 

F. D. Hayes 

P. H. Hoang 

K. Hojo 

D. N. Hopkins 

K. Koyama 

D. R. Lee 

H. S. Mehta 



K. Koyama 
D. R. Lee 
H. S. Mehta 
J. G. Merkle 
M. A. Mitchell 
K. Miyazaki 
S. Ranganath 
D. A. Scarth 
T.-L. Sham 
T. V. Vo 
K. R. Wichman 

Evaluation (SG-ES) (BPV XI) 
J. G. Merkle 
G. A. Miessi 
K. Miyazaki 
R. K. Qashu 
S. Ranganath 
D. L. Rudland 
P. J. Rush 
D. A. Scarth 
W. L. Server 
N.J. Shah 
T. V. Vo 
K. R. Wichman 
G. M. Wilkowski 
S. X. Xu 
K. K. Yoon 
V. A. Zilberstein 



Working Group on Operating Plant Criteria (SG-ES) (BPV XI) 

T. J. Griesbach, Chair H. S. Mehta 

D. V. Sommerville, Secretary M. A. Mitchell 

W. H. Bamford, Jr. R. Pace 

H. Behnke N. A. Palm 

T. L. Dickson S. Ranganath 

R. L. Dyle W. L. Server 

S. R. Gosselin D. P. Weakland 
M. Hayashi 

Working Group on Pipe Flaw Evaluation (SG-ES) (BPV XI) 



D. A. Scarth, Chair 

G. M. Wilkowski, Secretary 

T. A. Bacon 

W. H. Bamford, Jr. 

B. Bezensek 

H. D. Chung 

R. C. Cipolla 

N. G. Cofie 

J. M. Davis 

G. H. DeBoo 

B. Dogan 

B. R. Ganta 

L. F. Goyette 

K. Hasegawa 

P. H. Hoang 



K. Hojo 
D. N. Hopkins 
K. Kashima 
R. O. McGill 
H. S. Mehta 
K. Miyazaki 



L. Rudland 
J. Rush 
■L. Sham 
J. Shim 
V. Vo 
S. Wasiluk 
X. Xu 
K. Yoon 
A. Zilberstein 



Subgroup on Nondestructive Examination (SG-NDE) (BPV XI) 



Working Group on Design and Programs (SG-RRA) (BPV XI) 



J. C. Spanner, Jr., Chair 
G. A. Lofthus, Secretary 
C, A, Anderson 
T. L. Chan 

C. B. Cheezem 

D. R. Cordes 
F. E. Dohmen 
M. E. Gothard 
D. O. Henry 



G. L. Lagleder 
j. T. Lindberg 
T. R. Lupoid 
G. R. Perkins 
A. S. Reed 
S. A. Sabo 
F. J. Schaaf, Jr. 
C. J. Wirtz 



E. B. Gerlach, Chair 

S. B. Brown, Secretary 

O. Bhatty 

J. W. Collins 

R. R. Croft 

G. G. Elder 

E. V. Farrell, Jr. 

S. K. Fisher 

J. M. Gamber 



D. R. Graham 
G. F. Harttraft 
T. E. Hiss 
M. A. Pyne 
R. R. Stevenson 
R. W. Swayne 
A. H. Taufique 
T. P. Vassallo, Jr. 
R. A. Yonekawa 



Working Group on Personnel Qualification and Surface 
Visual and Eddy Current Examination (SG-NDE) (BPV XI) 



Subgroup on Water-Cooled Systems (SG-WCS) (BPV XI) 



A. S. Reed, Chair 

D. R. Cordes, Secretary 

C. A. Anderson 

B. L. Curtis 

N. Farenbaugh 

D. O. Henry 
K. M. Hoffman 
I. W. Houf 



J. T. Lindberg 

D. R. Quattlebaum, Jr. 

D. Spake 

J. C Spanner, Jr. 

M. C. Weatherly 

M. L. Whytsell 

C. J. Wirtz 



Working Group on Procedure Qualification 
and Volumetric Examination (SG-NDE) (BPV XI) 



K. B. Thomas, Chair 
N. A. Palm, Secretary 
J. M. Agold 
V. L. Armentrout 
J. M. Boughman 
S. T. Chesworth 

D. D. Davis 
H. Q. Do 

E. L. Farrow 
M. J. Ferlisi 
O. F. Hedden 
P. J. Hennessey 



S. D. Kulat 
D. W. Lamond 
A. McNeill III 
T. Nomura 
W. E. Norris 
G. C Park 
J. E. Staffiera 
H. M. Stephens, 
R. A. West 
G. E. Whitman 
H. L. Graves III, 



Alternate 



M. E. Gothard, Chair 

G. R. Perkins, Secretary 

M. T. Anderson 

C B. Cheezem 

A. D. Chockie 

S. R. Doctor 

F. E. Dohmen 



K. J. Hacker 
G. A. Lofthus 
C. A. Nove 
S. A. Sabo 
R. V. Swain 
B. A. Thigpen 
S. J. Todd 



Working Group on Containment (SG-WCS) (BPV XI) 



Subgroup on Repair/Replacement Activities (SG-RRA) (BPV XI) 



R. A. Yonekawa, Chair 

E. V. Farrell, Jr., Secretary 

S. B. Brown 

R. E. Cantrel! 

P. D. Fisher 

J. M. Gamber 

E. B. Gerlach 

R. E. Gimple 

D. R. Graham 

R. A. Hermann 



K. J. Karwoski 
R. D. Kerr 
S. L. McCracken 
B. R. Newton 
J. E. O'Sullivan 
R. R. Stevenson 
R. W. Swayne 

D. E. Waskey 
J. G. Weicks 

E. G. Reichelt, Alternate 



j, E. Staffiera, Chair 

H. M. Stephens, Jr., Secretary 

S. G. Brown 

J. W. Crider 

P. S. Ghosal 

D. H. Goche 

H. L. Graves III 



H. T. Hill 

R. D. Hough 

C. N. Krishnaswamy 

D.J. Naus 

F. Poteet III 

G. Thomas 

W. E. Norris, Alternate 



Working Group on ISI Optimization (SG-WCS) (BPV XI) 



D. R. Cordes, Chair 
S. A. Norman, Secretary 
W. H. Bamford, Jr. 
J. M. Boughman 
J. W. Collins 
M. E. Gothard 
R. E. Hall 



A. H. Mahindrakar 

E. L McClain 

F. Poteet III 
S. A. Sabo 

K. B. Thomas 

G. E. Whitman 
Y. Yuguchi 



Working Group on Welding and Special Repair Processes 
(SG-RRA) (BPV XI) 



D. E. Waskey, Chair 

D. J. Tilly, Secretary 

R. E. Cantrell 

S. J. Findlan 

P. D. Fisher 

M. L. Hail 

R. A. Hermann 

K. J. Karwoski 

C. C. Kim 



M. Lau 

S. L. McCracken 
D. B. Meredith 
B. R. Newton 
J. E. O'Sullivan 
R. E. Smith 
J. G. Weicks 
K. R. Willens 



Working Group on Implementation of Risk-Based Examination 
(SG-WCS) (BPV XI) 



S. D. Kulat, Chair 

S. T. Chesworth, Secretary 

I M. Agold 

C. Cueto-Felgueroso 

H. Q. Do 

R. Fougerousse 

M. R. Graybeal 

R. Haessler 

J. Hakii 

K. W. Hall 



K. M. Hoffman 
D. W. Lamond 
J. T. Lewis 
R. K. Mattu 
A. McNeill III 
P. J. O'Regan 
N. A. Palm 
M. A. Pyne 
J. C. Younger 



Working Group on Inspection of Systems and Components 
(SG-WCS) (BPV X!) 



Subgroup on Design and Materials (BPV XII) 



J. M. Ago!d, Chair 

V. L. Armentrout, Secretary 

C. Cueto-Felgueroso 

R. E. Day 
H. Q. Do 
M. J. Ferlisi 
R. Fougerousse 
K. W. Hal! 



S. D. Kulat 

T. A. Meyer 

D. G. Naujock 
T. Nomura 
J. C. Nygaard 
C. M. Ross 
K. B. Thomas 
G. E. Whitman 



Working Group on Pressure Testing (SG-WCS) (BPV XI) 



D. W. Lamond, Chair 

J. M. Boughman, Secretary 

Y.-K. Chung 

J. J. Churchwell 

T. Coste 

J. A. Doughty 



R. E. Hal! 
T. R. Lupoid 
j. K. McClanahan 
B. L. Montgomery 
P. N. Passalugo 



Special Working Group on Editing and Review (BPV XI) 



R. W. Swayne, Chair 
C. E. Moyer 
K. R. Rao 



J. E. Staff iera 
D.J.Tilly 
C. J. Wirtz 



Special Working Group on Nuclear Plant Aging Management 
(BPV XI) 



T. A. Meyer, Chair 

D. V. Burgess, Secretary 

S. Asada 

Y.-K. Chung 

B. Clark IIS 

D. D. Davis 

A. L. Hiser, Jr. 



A. B. Meichler 

R. E. Nickell 

K. Sakamoto 

W. L. Server 

R. L Turner 

G. G. Young 

C. E. Carpenter, Alternate 



Special Working Group on High-Temperature Gas-Cooled 
Reactors (BPV XI) 



J. Fletcher, Chair 

F. J. Schaaf, Jr., Vice Chair 

M. A. Lockwood, Secretary 

N. Broom 

C. Cueto-Felgueroso 

S. R. Doctor 



M. R. Graybeal 
A. B. Hull 
R. K. Miller 
M. N. Mitchell 
T. Roney 
R. W. Swayne 



Working Group on General Requirements (BPV XI) 



R. K. Rhyne, Chair 

E. J. Maloney, Secretary 

G. P. Alexander 

T. L Chan 

M. L. Coats 

E. L. Farrow 



R. Fox 

P. J. Hennessey 
R. K. Mattu 
C. E. Moyer 
R. L. Williams 



COMMITTEE ON TRANSPORT TANKS (BPV XI!) 



M. D. Rana, Chair 

S. Staniszewski, Vice Chair 

D. R. Sharp, Staff Secretary 

A. N. Antoniou 

C. H. Hochman 

G. G. Karcher 

N. J. Paulick 



M. D. Pham 

M. Pitts 

T. A. Rogers 

A. Selz 

A. P. Varghese 

M. R. Ward 



A. P. Varghese, Chair 
R. C. Sallash, Secretary 

D. K. Chandiramani 

P. Chilukuri 
T. Hitchcock 
G. G. Karcher 
T. P. Lokey 
S. L. McWilliams 



N. J. Paulick 
M. D. Pham 
M. D. Rana 
T. A. Rogers 
A. Selz 
M. R. Ward 
K. Xu 



Subgroup on Fabrication, Inspection, and Continued Service 

(BPV XII) 



M. Pitts, Chair 

P. Chilukuri, Secretary 

J. A. Byers 

W. L. Garfield 

D. J. Kreft 



T. P. Lokey 
A. S. Olivares 
R. C. Sallash 
S. Staniszewski 
L H. Strouse 



Subgroup on General Requirements (BPV XII) 



C. H. Hochman, Chair 

A. N. Antoniou, Secretary 

T. W. Alexander 

S. E. Benet 

J. L. Freiler 

W. L. Garfield 

K. L. Gilmore 



B. F. Pittel 
M. Pitts 
T. Rummel 
R. C. Sallash 
S. Staniszewski 
L. H. Strouse 



Subgroup on Nonmandatory Appendices (BPV XII) 



T. A. Rogers, Chair 

S. Staniszewski, Secretary 

S. E. Benet 

P. Chilukuri 

S. L. McWilliams 

M. Pitts 

A. Selz 

D. G. Shelton 

A. P. Varghese 

M. R. Ward 



D. D. Brusewitz, Contributing 

Member 
J. L. Con ley, Contributing 

Member 
T. Eubanks, Contributing 

Member 
T. Hitchcock, Contributing 

Member 
N. J. Paulick, Contributing 

Member 



COMMITTEE ON BOILER AND 
PRESSURE VESSEL CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT (CBPVCA) 



W. C. LaRochelle, Chair 

P. D. Edwards, Vice Chair 

K. I. Baron, Staff Secretary 

W. J. Bees 

S. W. Cameron 

T. E. Hansen 

D. J. Jenkins 

K. T. Lau 

L. E. McDonald 

K. M. McTague 

D. Miller 

B. R. Morelock 

J. D. O'Leary 

T. M. Parks 

B. C. Turczynski 

D. E. Tuttle 

E. A. Whittle 

S. F. Harrison, Jr., Contributing 
Member 



V. Bogosian, Alternate 
D. C. Cook, Alternate 
R. D. Danzy, Alternate 
M. A. DeVries, Alternate 
G. L. Hoi linger, Alternate 
D. W, King, Alternate 
B. L. Krasiun, Alternate 
P. F. Martin, Alternate 
K. McPhie, Alternate 
G. P. Mi I ley, Alternate 
M. R. Mi nick, Alternate 
T. W. Norton, Alternate 
F. J. Pavlovicz, Alternate 
M. T. Roby, Alternate 
J. A. West, Alternate 
R. V. Wielgoszinski, Alternate 
A. J. Spencer, Honorary 
Member 



COMMITTEE ON NUCLEAR CERTIFICATION (CNC) 



Subgroup on Design (BPV-SVR) 



R. R. Stevenson 


, Chair 


V, Bogoslan, Alternate 


R. D. Danzy, Chair D. Miller 


W. C. LaRochelle, Vice Chair 


P, D. Edwards, Alternate 


C. E. Beair T. Patel 


P. Camurati, Staff Secretary 


D. P. Gobbi, Alternate 


J. A. Conley T. R. Tarbay 


M. N. Bressler 




J, W. Highlands, Alternate 


R.J. Doeliing J. A, West 


G. Deily 




K. M. Hottle, Alternate 




S. M. Goodwin 




K. A. Kavanagh, Alternate 




K. A. Huber 




B. G. Kovarik, Alternate 


Subgroup on General Requirements (BPV-SVR) 


M. Kotb 




B. L. Krasiun, Alternate 




J. C. Krane 




M. A. Lockwood, Alternate 


D. B. DeMichaei, Chair B. F. Pittel 


R. P. Mclntyre 




R. J. Luymes, Alternate 


J. F. Ball J. W. Ramsey 


M. R. Minick 




L. M, Plante, Alternate 


G. Brazier J. W. Richardson 


H. B. Prasse 




D. W. Stepp, Alternate 


J. P. Glaspie D. E. Tuttle 


T. E. Quaka 




E. A. Whittle, Alternate 


D. K. Parrish S. T. French, Alternate 


D. M. Vickery 




H. L. Wiger, Alternate 




C. S. Withers 








M. F. Sullivan, 


Contributing 




Subgroup on Testing (BPV-SVR) 


Member 






J. A. Cox, Chair B. K. Nutter 
J. E. Britt D. j. Scallan 




COMMITTEE ON 


S. Cammeresi C. Sharpe 


SAFETY VALVE REQUIREMENTS (BPV-SVR) 


G. D. Goodson Z. Wang 








W. F. Hart 



J. A. West, Chair S. F. Harrison, 

D. B. DeMichaei, Vice Chair W. F. Hart 

C. E. O'Brien, Staff Secretary D. Miller 

J. F. Ball D. K. Parrish 

S. Cammeresi T. Patel 

J. A. Cox D. J. Scallan 

R. D. Danzy T. R. Tarbay 

R. J. Doeliing Z. Wang 
J. P. Glaspie 



U.S. Technical Advisory Group 8SO/TC 185 
Safety Relief Valves 



T. J. Bevilacqua, Chair 
C. E. O'Brien, Staff Secretary 
J. F. Ball 
G. Brazier 



D. B. DeMichael 
D. Miller 
B. K. Nutter 
J. A. West 



SUMMARY OF CHANGES 



The 201 1 Code, which includes Addenda changes, is being issued in its entirety. While the pages of the Code 
are printed in loose-leaf format for the users' convenience, it is advisable that the existing 201 pages be retained 
for reference. The next Edition of the Code will be published in 2013. 

A Special Notice may be posted on the ASME Web site in advance of the next edition of the Boiler and Pressure 
Vessel Code to provide approved revisions to Code requirements. Such revisions may be used on the date posted 
and will become mandatory 6 months after the date of issuance in the next edition. A Special Notice may also 
include a revision to a Code Case. The superseded version of the Code Case shall not be used. 

Errata to the BPV Code may be posted on the ASME Web site to provide corrections to incorrectly published 
items, or to correct typographical or grammatical errors in BPV Codes. Such errata shall be used on the date 
posted. 

Information regarding Special Notices and Errata is published on the ASME Web site under the Boiler and 
Pressure Vessel Code Resources Page at http://www.asme.org/kb/standards/publications/bpvc-resources. 

Changes in this Addenda, given below, are identified on the pages by a margin note, (a), placed next to the 
affected area. Revisions to the 2010 Edition are indicated by (10). For the listing below, the Page references the 
affected area. A margin note, (a), placed next to the heading indicates Location. Revisions are listed under 
Change. 

Change 

Tenth and fourteenth paragraphs revised 

Revised 



Page 


Location 


IX, X 


Foreword 


xi 


Statement of Policy 




on the Use of the 




Certification Mark 




and Code 




Authorization in 




Advertising 


xi 


Statement of Policy 




on the Use of 




ASME Marking to 




Identify 




Manufactured 




Items 


xii, xiii 


Submittal of 




Technical 




Inquiries to the 




Boiler and 




Pressure Vessel 




Committee — 




Mandatory 


xiv-xxvi 


Personnel 


19 


3.01 




Fig. 3.01 


26 


3.20A 




3.20C 


82 


Mandatory 




Appendix II 



Revised 



Moved from Mandatory Appendix II and revised 



Updated 

Last sentence of first paragraph editorially revised 

Editorially revised 

Subparagraph (1) editorially revised 

Subparagraphs (1) and (2) editorially revised 

Moved to front matter and revised 



INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK 



xxvm 



2011a SECTION VI 



1. GENERAL 



1.01 



SCOPE 



This portion of the rules is intended to cover general 
descriptions, terminology, and basic fundamentals of heat- 
ing boilers, controls, and automatic fuel burning equip- 
ment. Because of the wide variety of makes and types of 
equipment in use, it is general in scope. 



1.02 



USE OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



The illustrations used in this Section have been selected 
to show typical examples of the equipment referred to in 
the text and are not intended to endorse or recommend 
any one manufacturer's product; nor are the illustrations 
intended to be used as design criteria or as examples of 
preferred configurations of equipment. 



1.03 



MANUFACTURER'S INFORMATION 



For detailed information on any specific unit, the 
Manufacturer's information should be consulted. 



1.04 



REFERENCE TO SECTION IV 



The boilers discussed in this Section will be those limited 
to the operating ranges of Section IV, Heating Boilers, of 
the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code as follows: 

(a) steam boilers for operation at pressure not exceeding 
15psi(100kPa) 

(b) hot water heating and hot water supply boilers for 
operation at pressures not exceeding 160 psi (1 100 kPa) 
and/or temperatures not to exceed 250°F (120°C) 



1.05 



GLOSSARY OF TERMS 



For terms relating to boiler design, refer to Section IV, 
Heating Boilers, Appendix E, Terminology. For terms 
relating to boiler water treatment, refer to 9.12 of this 
Section, Glossary of Water Treatment Terms. 

A. Boilers and General Terms 

absolute pressure: pressure above zero pressure, the sum 
of the gage and atmospheric pressures. 

accumulator (steam): a pressure vessel containing water 
and steam that is used to store the heat of steam for use 
at a later period and at some lower pressure. 



air purge: the removal of undesired matter by replace- 
ment with air. 

air vent: a valve opening in the top of the highest drum 
of a boiler or pressure vessel for venting air. Also a device, 
manual or automatic, that will effect the removal of air 
from a steam or hot water heating system. It is usually 
located at the highest point in the system. 

allowable working pressure: the maximum pressure for 
which the boiler was designed and constructed. 

altitude gage: a pressure gage calibrated in feet, indicat- 
ing the height of the water in the system above the gage; 
usually found as combination pressure, altitude, and tem- 
perature gage. 

ambient temperature: the temperature of the air sur- 
rounding the equipment. 

baffle: a plate or wall for deflecting gases or liquids. 

base: support for boiler. 

beaded tube end: the rounded exposed end of a rolled 
tube when the tube metal is formed over against the sheet 
in which the tube is rolled. 

belled tube end: see flared tube end. 

bellows seal: a seal in the shape of a bellows used to 
prevent air or gas leakage. 

blind nipple: a nipple, or a short piece of piping or tube, 
closed at one end. 

blow down: the difference between the opening and clos- 
ing pressures of a safety or safety relief valve. 

blow off valve: a valve or cock in the bottom and/or near 
the water line of a boiler, that, when opened, permits free 
passage of scale and sediment during the blowoff operation. 

boiler: a pressure vessel that incorporates a fuel input 
device or mechanism to heat water for space heating or 
other purposes or to convert water into steam for use in 
an external distribution system. 

(a) watertube: a boiler in which the tubes contain 
water and steam, the heat being applied to the outside 
surface. 

(1) bent tube: a watertube boiler consisting of two 
or more drums connected by tubes, practically all of which 
are bent near the ends to permit attachment to the drum 
shell on radial lines. 

(2 ) horizontal: a watertube boiler in which the 
main bank of tubes is straight and on a slope of 5 deg to 
15 deg from the horizontal. 

(3) sectional header: a horizontal boiler of the lon- 
gitudinal or cross drum type, with the tube bank composed 



2011a SECTION VI 



of multiple parallel sections, each section made up of a 
front and rear header connected by one or more vertical 
rows of generating tubes and with the sections or groups 
of sections having a common steam drum. 

(4) box header: a horizontal boiler of the longitudi- 
nal or cross drum type consisting of a front and a rear 
inclined rectangular header connected by tubes. 

(5) cross drum,: a sectional header or box header 
boiler in which the axis of the horizontal drum is at right 
angles to the center lines of the tubes in the main bank, 

(6) longitudinal drum: a sectional header or box 
header boiler in which the axis of the horizontal drum or 
drums is parallel to the tubes in a vertical plane. 

(7) low head: a bent tube boiler having three drums 
with relatively short tubes in the rear bank. 

(b) firetube: a boiler with straight tubes that are sur- 
rounded by water and steam and through which the prod- 
ucts of combustion pass. 

(1) horizontal return tubular: a firetube boiler con- 
sisting of a cylindrical shell, with tubes inside the shell 
attached to both end closures. The products of combustion 
pass under the bottom half of the shell and return through 
the tubes. 

(2) locomotive: a horizontal firetube boiler with an 
internal furnace, the rear of which is a tubesheet directly 
attached to a shell containing tubes through which the 
products of combustion leave the furnace. 

(3) horizontal firebox: a firetube boiler with an 
internal furnace the rear of which is a tubesheet directly 
attached to a shell containing tubes. The first-pass bank of 
tubes is connected between the furnace tubesheet and the 
rear head. The second-pass bank of tubes, passing over the 
crown sheet, is connected between the front and rear end 
closures. 

(4) refractory lined firebox: a horizontal firetube 
boiler, the front portion of which is set over a refractory 
or water-cooled refractory furnace. The rear of the boiler 
shell has an integral or separately connected section con- 
taining the first-pass tubes through which the products 
of combustion leave the furnace, then return through the 
second-pass upper bank of tubes. 

(5) vertical: a firetube boiler consisting of a cylin- 
drical shell, with tubes connected between the top head 
and the tubesheet, that forms the top of the internal furnace. 
The products of combustion pass from the furnace directly 
through the vertical tubes. 

Submerged vertical is the same as the plain type above, 
except that by use of a waterleg construction as a part of 
the upper tubesheet, it is possible to carry the waterline at 
a point above the top ends of the tubes. 

(6) scotch: in stationary service, a firetube boiler 
consisting of a cylindrical shell, with one or more cylindri- 
cal internal furnaces in the lower portion and a bank of 
tubes attached to both end closures. The fuel is burned in 



the furnace, the products of combustion leaving the rear 
to return through the tubes to an uptake at the front head: 
known as dry -back type. 

In marine service, this boiler has an internal combustion 
chamber of waterleg construction covering the rear end of 
the furnace and tubes, in which the products of combustion 
turn and enter the tubes: known as wet-back type. 

(c) modular: a steam or hot water heating boiler 
assembly consisting of a grouping of individual boilers 
called modules, intended to be installed as a unit, with a 
single inlet and a single outlet. Modules may be under one 
jacket or individually jacketed. 

(d) vacuum: a factory- sealed steam boiler that is oper- 
ated below atmospheric pressure. 

(e) boiler, steam heating: a boiler designed to convert 
water into steam, that is supplied to an external space 
heating system. 

(f) boiler, hot water heating: a boiler designed to heat 
water for circulation through an external space heating 
distribution system. 

(g) boiler, hot water supply: a boiler used to heat 
water for purposes other than space heating. 

boiler horsepower: the evaporation of 34.5 lb (15.6 kg) 
of water per hour from a temperature of 212°F (100°C) 
into dry saturated steam at the same temperature equivalent 
to 33,475 Btu/hr (9.8 kW). 

boiler inspection: boilers that are fabricated are usually 
inspected during construction for compliance with Code 
design requirements. They are also periodically field 
inspected internally and externally for corrosion or scaling 
and for the condition of controls, safety devices, etc. Boilers 
that are cast are given a hydrostatic test only (each section 
or the complete boiler); a visual inspection by the 
Authorized Inspector is not required unless local jurisdic- 
tions require periodic field inspections. 

boiler layup: any extended period of time during which 
the boiler is not expected to operate and suitable precau- 
tions are made to protect it against corrosion, scaling, pit- 
ting, etc., on the water and fire sides. 

boiler trim: piping on or near the boiler that is used for 
safety, limit, and operating controls, gages, water col- 
umn, etc. 

bond: a retaining or holding high- temperature cement for 
making a joint between brick or adjacent courses of brick. 

boss: a raised portion of metal of small area and limited 
thickness on flat or curved metal surfaces. 

breeching: a duct for the transport of the products of 
combustion between the boiler and the stack. 

bridge wall: a wall in a furnace over which the products 
of combustion pass. 

backstay: a structural member placed against a furnace 
or boiler wall to restrain the motion of the wall. 

backstay spacer: a spacer for separating a pair of chan- 
nels that are used as a buckstay. 



2011a SECTION VI 



casing: a covering of sheets of metal or other material 
such as fire-resistant composition board used to enclose 
all or a portion of a steam generating unit. 

cleanout door; a door placed so that accumulated refuse 
may be removed from a boiler setting. 

cock: a plug- or ball-type valve in which a 90 deg turn 
of the handle will move the valve to full open or closed. 
Such cocks should be designed so that they are open when 
the handle is parallel with the line of flow. 

column, fluid relief: that piping connected to the top of 
a hot water heating boiler that is provided for the thermal 
expansion of the water. It will connect to either an open 
or closed expansion tank. 

combustion chamber: that part of a boiler where combus- 
tion of the fuel takes place. 

condensate: condensed water resulting from the removal 
of latent heat from steam. 

conductivity: the amount of heat (Btu) transmitted in 
1 hr through 1 ft 2 (645 mm 2 ) of a homogeneous material 
1 in. (25 mm) thick for a difference in temperature of 1°F 
(0.556°C) between the two surfaces of the material. 

control: any manual or automatic device for the regula- 
tion of a machine to keep it at normal operation. If auto- 
matic, the device is motivated by variations in temperature, 
pressure, water level, time, light, or other influences. 

convection: the transmission of heat by the circulation 
of a liquid or a gas such as air. Convection may be natural 
or forced. 

core: a rod or closed tube inserted in a tube to reduce 
the flow area. 

cross box: a boxlike structure attached to the longitudinal 
drum of a sectional header boiler for the connection of 
circulating tubes. 

crown sheet: in a firebox boiler, the plate forming the 
top of the furnace. 

damper: a device for introducing a variable resistance 
for regulating the volumetric flow of gas or air. 

(a) butterfly type: a blade damper pivoted about its 
center. 

(b) curtain type: a damper, composed of flexible 
material, moving in a vertical plane as it is rolled. 

(c) flap type: a damper consisting of one or more 
blades each pivoted about one edge. 

(d) louver type: a damper consisting of several blades 
each pivoted about its center and linked together for simul- 
taneous operation. 

(e) slide type: a damper consisting of a single blade 
that moves substantially normal to the flow. 

design load: the load for which a steam generating unit 
is designed, usually considered the maximum load to be 
carried. 

design pressure: the maximum allowable working pres- 
sure permitted under the rules of Section IV of the Code. 



developed boiler horsepower: the boiler horsepower 
generated by a steam generating unit. 

diagonal stay: a brace used in firetube boilers between 
a flat head or tubesheet and the shell. 

diaphragm: a partition of metal or other material placed 
in a header, duct, or pipe to separate portions thereof. 

discharge tube: a tube through which steam and water 
are discharged into a drum; also a riser or releaser. 

downcomer: & tube in a boiler or waterwall system 
through which fluid flows downward, 

drain: a valved connection at the lowest point for the 
removal of all water from the pressure parts. 

drip: a pipe, or a steam trap and a pipe, considered as 
a unit, that conducts condensate from the steam side of a 
piping system to the return side. 

drum; a cylindrical shell closed at both ends designed 
to withstand internal pressure. 

drum baffle: a plate or series of plates or screens placed 
within a drum to divert or change the direction of the flow 
of water or water and steam. 

drum head: a plate closing the end of a boiler drum 
or shell. 

dry pipe: a perforated or slotted pipe or box inside the 
drum and connected to the steam outlet. 

dry return: a return pipe in a steam heating system that 
carries condensate and air and is above the water level of 
the boiler. 

dry steam drum: a pressure chamber, usually serving as 
the steam offtake drum, located above and in communica- 
tion with the steam space of a boiler steam-and- water drum. 

dutch oven: a furnace that extends forward of the wall 
of a boiler setting. It usually is of all refractory construction 
with a low roof, although in some cases the roof and side 
walls are water cooled. 

earthquake bracing: diagonal bracing between columns 
designed to withstand violent lateral motion of the 
structure. 

efficiency: the ratio of output to the input. The efficiency 
of a steam generating unit is the ratio of the heat absorbed 
by water and steam to the heat in the fuel fired. 

ejector: a device that utilizes the kinetic energy in a jet 
of water or other fluid to remove a fluid or fluent material 
from tanks or hoppers. 

electric boiler: a boiler in which the electric heating 
means serve as the source of heat. 

equalizer: connections between parts of a boiler to equal- 
ize pressures. 

equivalent direct radiation (EDR): the amount of heating 
surface that will give off 240 Btu/hr (0.070 kW) for steam 
and 150 Btu/hr (0.044 kW) for hot water. EDR may have 
no direct relation to actual surface area. 

equivalent evaporation: evaporation expressed in 
pounds of water evaporated from a temperature of 212°F 
(100°C) to dry saturated steam at 212°F (100°C). 



2011a SECTION VI 



evaporation rate: the number of pounds of water evapo- 
rated in a unit of time. 

expanded joint: the pressure of a tight joint formed by 
enlarging a tube seat. 

expander: the tool used to expand tubes. 

expansion joint: the joint to permit movement due to 
expansion without undue stress. 

explosion door: a door in a furnace or boiler setting 
designed to be opened by a predetermined gas pressure. 

extended surface: metallic heat absorbing surface pro- 
truding beyond the tube wall. 

extension furnace: see dutch oven. 

external header: connection between sections of a cast 
iron boiler to effect circulation of the steam or heated 
water. 

externally fired boiler: a boiler in which the furnace is 
essentially surrounded by refractory or water-cooled tubes. 

feed pipe: a pipe through which water is conducted into 
a boiler. 

feed trough: a trough or pan from which feed water 
overflows in the drum. 

feedwater: water introduced into a boiler during opera- 
tion. Includes makeup and return condensate or return 
water. 

ferrule: a short metallic ring rolled into a tube hole to 
decrease its diameter; also, a short metallic ring rolled 
inside of a rolled tube end; also, a short metallic ring for 
making up handhole joints. 

fin: a strip of steel welded longitudinally to a tube. 

fin tube: a tube with one or more fins. 

firebox: the equivalent of a furnace; a term usually used 
for the furnaces of locomotive and similar types of boilers. 

fire crack: a crack starting on the heated side of a tube, 
shell, or header resulting from excessive temperature 
stresses. 

fired pressure vessel: a vessel containing a fluid under 
pressure exposed to heat from the combustion of fuel. 

firetube: a tube in a boiler having water on the outside 
and carrying the products of combustion on the inside. 

flame plate: a baffle of metal or other material for direct- 
ing gases of combustion. 

flared tube end: the projecting end of a rolled tube that 
is expanded or rolled to a conical shape. 

float switch: a float operated switch that makes and 
breaks an electric circuit in accordance with a change in 
a predetermined water level. 

flow sensing fuel cutoff: a device that will cut off the 
fuel supply when circulating water flow is interrupted in 
coil-type boilers or watertube boilers requiring forced cir- 
culation to prevent overheating of the coils or tubes. 

french coupling: a coupling with a right- and left-hand 
thread. 

furnace: an enclosed space provided for the combustion 
of fuel. 



furnace volume: the cubical contents of the furnace or 
combustion chamber. 

fusible plug: a hollowed threaded plug having the hol- 
lowed portion filled with a low melting point material, 
usually located at the lowest permissible water level. 

gage cock: a valve attached to a water column or drum 
for checking the water level. 

gage glass: the transparent part of a water gage assembly 
connected directly or through a water column to the boiler, 
below and above the waterline, to indicate the water level 
in the boiler. 

gage pressure: the pressure above atmospheric pressure. 

generating tube: a tube in which steam is generated. 

grooved tube seat: a tube seat having one or more shal- 
low grooves into which the tube may be forced by the 
expander. 

hairpin tube: a tube bent to the shape of a hairpin. 

handhole: an opening in a pressure part for access, usu- 
ally not exceeding 6 in. (150 mm) in longest dimension. 

handhole cover: a handhole closure. 

header: piping that connects two or more boilers 
together. It may be either supply or return piping. 

heat balance: an accounting of the distribution of the 
heat input and output. 

heat exchanger: a vessel in which heat is transferred 
from one medium to another. 

heating surface: that surface which is exposed to the 
heating medium for absorption and transfer of heat to the 
heated medium. 

horizontal return tubular boiler (HRT): see boiler, 

hydrostatic test: a strength and tightness test of a closed 
pressure vessel by water pressure. 

impingement: the striking of moving matter, such as the 
flow of steam, water, gas, or solids, against similar or other 
matter. 

inspection door: a small door located in the outer enclo- 
sure so that certain parts of the interior of the apparatus 
may be observed. 

Inspector, Authorized: a boiler inspector who, according 
to the local requirements, is authorized to inspect boilers. 
He may be a city, state, province, or insurance company 
employee. 

insulation: a material of low thermal conductivity used 
to reduce heat losses. 

internal furnace: a furnace within a boiler consisting of 
a straight or corrugated flue, or a firebox substantially 
surrounded, except on the bottom, with water-cooled heat- 
ing surface. 

internally fired boiler: a firetube boiler having an internal 
furnace such as a scotch, locomotive firebox, vertical tubu- 
lar, or other type having a water-cooled plate type furnace. 

joint: a separable or inseparable juncture between two 
or more materials. 



2011a SECTION VI 



joints, swing: threaded, flanged, welded, or brazed pipe 
and fittings so arranged that the piping system that they 
comprise, when connected to a boiler, can expand and 
contract without imposing excessive force on it. 

jumper tube: a short tube connection for bypassing, rout- 
ing, or directing the flow of fluid as desired. 

lagging: a covering, usually of insulating material, on 
pipe or ducts. 

lance door: a door through which a hand lance may be 
inserted for cleaning heating surfaces. 

lever valve: a quick-operating valve operated by a lever 
that travels through an arc not greater than 180 deg. 

lift: the movement of the disk off the seat of a safety or 
safety relief valve when the valve is opened. Lift normally 
refers to the amount of movement of the disk off the seat 
when the valve is discharging at rated pressure. 

ligament: the minimum cross section of solid metal in 
a header, shell, or tubesheet between two adjacent holes. 

limit control: any device that shuts down the burner 
when operating limits are reached. 

load: the rate of output; also, the weight carried. 

load factor: the ratio of the average load in a given 
period to the maximum load carried during that period. 

longitudinal drum boiler: see boiler. 

low -water fuel cutoff: a device that will automatically 
cut off the fuel supply before the surface of the water falls 
below the lowest visible part of the water gage glass in 
steam heating boilers or below any location above the 
lowest safe permissible water level established by the man- 
ufacturer in hot water heating and supply boilers. 

low -water fuel cutoff, manual reset: a device that will 
automatically cut off the fuel supply and cause a safety 
shutdown requiring manual reset. 

lowest safe waterline: that water level in the boiler below 
which the burner is not allowed to operate. 

lug: any projection, such as an ear, used for supporting 
or grasping. 

makeup water: water introduced into the boiler to replace 
that lost or removed from the system. 

manhead: the head of a boiler drum or other pressure 
vessel having a manhole. 

manhole: the opening in a pressure vessel of sufficient 
size to permit a man to enter. 

manifold: a pipe or header for collecting a fluid from, 
or the distributing of a fluid to, a number of pipes or tubes. 

maximum continuous load: the maximum load that can 
be maintained for a special period. 

miniature boiler: fired pressure vessels that do not 
exceed the following limits: 16 in. (400 mm) inside diame- 
ter of shell; 42 in. (1 075 mm) overall length to outside of 
heads at center; 20 ft 2 (1.9 m 2 ) water heating surface; or 
100 psi (700 kPa) maximum allowable working pressure. 

mud leg: see waterleg. 



nipple, push: a short length of pipe tapered at both ends, 
used to hold sections of cast boilers together. 

nipple, threaded: a short length of threaded pipe. 

operating control: any device that controls the operation 
of a fuel burner to maintain the desired condition. 

operating water level: in a steam boiler, the maintained 
water level that is above the lowest safe water level. 

packaged steam generator: a boiler equipped and 
shipped complete with fuel burning equipment, mechanical 
draft equipment, automatic controls, and accessories. 

pad: see boss. A pad is larger than a boss and is attached 
to a pressure vessel to reinforce an opening. 

pass: a confined passageway, containing heating surface, 
through which a fluid flows in essentially one direction. 

peak load: the maximum load carried for a stated short 
period of time. 

peepdoor: a small door usually provided with a shielded 
glass opening through which combustion may be observed. 

peephole: a small hole in a door covered by a movable 
cover. 

pitch: the distance between center lines of tubes, rivets, 
staybolts, or braces. 

plate baffle: a metal baffle. 

platen: a plane surface receiving heat from both sides 
and constructed with a width of one tube and a depth of 
two or more tubes, bare or with extended surfaces. 

pneumatic control: any control that uses compressed air 
as the actuating means. 

popping pressure: the pressure at which a safety valve 
opens. 

porcupine boiler: a boiler consisting of a vertical shell 
from which project a number of dead end tubes. 

port: an opening through which fluid passes. 

power control valve: a safety valve opened by a power 
driven mechanism. 

pressure: force per unit of area. 

pressure, accumulation test: that steam pressure at which 
the capacity of a safety, safety relief, or relief valve is 
determined. 

pressure drop: the difference in pressure between two 
points in a system, at least one of which is above atmo- 
spheric pressure, and caused by resistance to flow. 

pressure-expanded joint: a tube joint in a drum, header, 
or tubesheet expanded by a tool that forces the tube wall 
outward by driving a tapered pin into the center of a sec- 
tional die. 

pressure vessel: a closed vessel or container designed 
to confine a fluid at a pressure above atmospheric. 

pulsation: rapid fluctuations in furnace pressure. 

rated capacity: the Manufacturer' s stated capacity rating 
for mechanical equipment; for example, the maximum con- 
tinuous capacity in pounds of steam per hour for which a 
boiler is designed. 

rating: see load. 



2011a SECTION VI 



receiver: the tank portion of a condensate or vacuum 
return pump where condensate accumulates. 

recessed tube wall: a refractory furnace wall with slots 
in which waterwall tubes are placed so that the tubes are 
partially exposed to the furnace. 

recirculation: the reintroduction of part of the flowing 
fluid to repeat the cycle of circulation. 

refractory baffle: a baffle of refractory material. 

relief valve: see safety relief valve, 

retarder: a straight or helical strip inserted in a firetube 
primarily to increase the turbulence. 

rifled tube: a tube that is helically grooved on the 
inner wall. 

rolled joint: a joint made by expanding a tube into a 
hole by a roller expander. 

saddle: a casting, fabricated chair, or member used for 
the purpose of support. 

safe working pressure: see design pressure. 

safety relief valve: an automatic pressure relieving 
device actuated by the pressure upstream of the valve and 
characterized by opening pop action with further increase 
in lift with an increase in pressure over popping pressure. 

safety valve: an automatic pressure relieving device actu- 
ated by the static pressure upstream of the valve and charac- 
terized by full-opening pop action. It is used for gas or 
vapor service. 

sampling: the removal of a portion of material for exami- 
nation or analysis. 

scotch boiler: see boiler. 

screen: a perforated plate, cylinder, or meshed fabric, 
usually mounted on a frame for separating coarser from 
finer parts. 

screen tube: a tube in a water screen. 

seal: a device to close openings between structures to 
prevent leakage. 

seal weld: a weld used primarily to obtain tightness and 
prevent leakage. 

seam: the joint between two plates riveted together. 

sectional-header boiler: see boiler. 

separator: a device for sorting and dividing one sub- 
stance from another. 

shell: the cylindrical portion of a pressure vessel. 

shutoff valve: see stop valve. 

slip seal: a seal between members designed to permit 
movement of either member by slipping or sliding. 

smokebox: an external compartment on a boiler to catch 
unburned products of combustion. 

spalling: the breaking off of the surface of refractory 
material as a result of internal stresses. 

spun ends: the ends of hollow members closed by rolling 
while heated. 

stay: a tensile stress member to hold material or other 
members rigidly in position. 



staybolt: a bolt threaded through or welded at each end, 
into two spaced sheets of a firebox or box header to support 
flat surfaces against internal pressure. 

steam dome: a receptacle riveted or welded to the top 
sheet of a firetube boiler through and from which the steam 
is taken from the boiler. 

steam gage: a gage for indicating the pressure of steam. 

stop valve: valve (usually gage type) that is used to 
isolate a part of a heating system or a boiler from the 
other parts. 

strainer, condensate: mechanical means (screen) of 
removing solid material from the condensate before it 
reaches the pump. 

strength weld: a weld capable of withstanding a design 
stress. 

stub tube: a short tube welded to a pressure part for field 
extension. 

stud: a projecting pin serving as a support or means of 
attachment. 

stud tube: a tube having short studs welded to it. 

swinging load: a load that changes at relatively short 
intervals. 

thermal probe: a liquid-cooled tube used as a calorimeter 
in a furnace to measure heat absorption rates. 

thimble: a short piece of pipe or tube. 

throat: the neck portion of a passageway. 

through-stay: a brace used in firetube boilers between 
the heads or tubesheets. 

tie plate: a plate, through which a bolt or tie rod is 
passed, to hold brick in place. 

tie rod: a tension member between buckstays, tie plates, 
or cast boiler sections. 

tile: a preformed, burned refractory, usually applied to 
shapes other than standard brick. 

tile baffle: a baffle formed of preformed, burned refrac- 
tory shapes. 

trap: a device installed in steam piping that is designed 
to prohibit the passage of steam but allow the passage of 
condensate and air. 

try cock: see gage cock. 

tube: a hollow cylinder for conveying fluids. 

tube cleaner: a device for cleaning tubes by brushing, 
hammering, or by rotating cutters. 

tube door: a door in a boiler or furnace wall through 
which tubes may be removed or new tubes passed. 

tube hole: a hole in a drum, header, or tubesheet to 
accommodate a tube. 

tube plug: a solid plug driven into the end of a tube. 

tube seat: that part of a tube hole with which a tube 
makes contact. 

tubesheet: the plate containing the tube holes. 

tube turbining: the act of cleaning a tube by means of 
a power driven rotary device that passes through the tube. 



2011a SECTION VI 



unfired pressure vessel: a vessel designed to withstand 
internal pressure, neither subjected to heat from products 
of combustion nor an integral part of a fired pressure vessel 
system. 

uptake: vertical smoke outlet from a boiler before it 
connects to the breeching. 

use factor: the ratio of hours in operation to the total 
hours in that period. 

valve, safety: for use on steam heating boilers not 
exceeding 15 psi (100 kPa) MAWP, a direct spring-loaded 
pressure relief valve designed to actuate on inlet static 
pressure and characterized by pop action. 

valve, safety relief: for use on hot water heating and 
supply boilers not exceeding 160 psi (1 100 kPa) MAWP, 
a direct spring-loaded pressure relief valve designed to 
actuate on inlet static pressure and characterized by rapid 
opening followed by further increase in disk lift with 
increasing overpressure. 

vent: an opening in a vessel or other enclosed space for 
the removal of gas or vapor. 

waste heat: sensible heat in noncombustible gases, such 
as gases leaving furnaces used for processing metals, ores, 
or other materials. 

water column: a vertical tubular member connected at 
its top and bottom to the steam and water space respectively 
of a boiler, to which the water gage, gage cocks, and high- 
and low-level alarms may be connected. 

water gage: the gage glass and its fittings for attachment. 

waterleg: water-cooled sides of a firebox type boiler; 
sometimes called mud leg because solids that accumulate 
have a tendency to settle there. 

water level: the elevation of the surface of the water in 
a boiler. 

water tube: a tube in a boiler having the water and steam 
on the inside and heat applied to the outside. 

wrapper sheet: the outside plate enclosing the firebox 
in a firebox or locomotive boiler; also, the thinner sheet 
in the shell of a two-thickness boiler drum. 

B. Fuels, Fuel Burning Equipment, and Combustion 

air: the mixture of oxygen, nitrogen, and other gases 
that, with varying amounts of water vapor, forms the atmo- 
sphere of the earth. 

air atomizing oil burner: a burner for firing oil in which 
the oil is atomized by compressed air that is forced into 
and through one or more streams of oil, breaking the oil 
into a fine spray. 

air deficiency: insufficient air, in an air-fuel mixture, 
to supply the oxygen theoretically required for complete 
oxidation of the fuel. 

air-fuel ratio: the ratio of the weight, or volume, of air 
to fuel. 

air infiltration: the leakage of air into a setting or duct. 

air moisture: the water vapor suspended in the air. 



air purge: the removal of undesired matter by replace- 
ment with air. 

air resistance: the opposition offered to the passage of 
air through any flow path. 

air, saturated: air that contains the maximum amount 
of water vapor that it can hold at its temperature and 
pressure. 

ambient air: the air that surrounds the equipment. The 
standard ambient air for performance calculations is air 
at 80°F (27°C), 60% relative humidity, and a barometric 
pressure of 29.92 in. Hg (760 mm Hg). 

aspirating burner: a burner in which the fuel in a gaseous 
or finely divided form is burned in suspension, the air for 
combustion being supplied by bringing it into contact with 
the fuel. Air is drawn through one or more openings by 
the lower static pressure created by the velocity of the fuel 
stream. 

atmospheric air: air under the prevailing atmospheric 
conditions. 

atmospheric pressure: the barometric reading of pres- 
sure exerted by the atmosphere: at sea level, 14.7 lb/in. 2 
(101 kPa) or 29.92 in. Hg (101 kPa). 

atomizer: a device by means of which a liquid is reduced 
to a very fine spray. 

automatic lighter: a means for starting ignition of fuel 
without manual intervention; usually applied to liquid, gas- 
eous, or pulverized fuel. 

auxiliary air: additional air, either hot or cold, that may 
be introduced into the exhauster inlet or burner lines to 
increase the primary air at the burners. 

available draft: the draft that may be utilized to cause 
the flow of air for combustion or the flow of products of 
combustion. 

axial fan: consists of a propeller or disk type of wheel 
within a cylinder that discharges the air parallel to the axis 
of the wheel. 

balanced draft: the maintenance of a fixed value of draft 
in a furnace at all combustion rates by control of incoming 
air and outgoing products of combustion. 

barometric pressure: atmospheric pressure as deter- 
mined by a barometer, usually expressed in inches of 
mercury. 

blower: a fan used to force air under pressure. 

booster fan: a device for increasing the pressure or flow 
of a gas. 

breeching: a duct for the transport of the products of 
combustion between parts of a steam generating unit or to 
the stack. 

British thermal unit: the mean British thermal unit is 
Vi 8 o °f me heat required to raise the temperature of 1 lb 
of water from 32°F to 212°F at a constant atmospheric 
pressure. It is about equal to the quantity of heat required 
to raise 1 lb of water 1°F. 



2011a SECTION VI 



Bunker C oil: residual fuel oil of high viscosity com- 
monly used in marine and stationary steam power plants 
(No. 6 fuel oil). 

burner: a device for the introduction of fuel and air 
into a furnace at the desired velocities, turbulence, and 
concentration to establish and maintain proper ignition and 
combustion of the fuel. 

burner windbox: a plenum chamber around a burner 
in which an air pressure is maintained to insure proper 
distribution and discharge of secondary air. 

burner windbox pressure: the air pressure maintained 
in the windbox or plenum chamber measured above atmo- 
spheric pressure. 

calorific value: the number of heat units liberated per 
unit of quantity of a fuel burned in a calorimeter under 
prescribed conditions. 

calorimeter: apparatus for determining the calorific 
value of a fuel. 

carbon: the element that is the principal combustible 
constituent of all fuels. 

carbonization: the process of converting coal to carbon 
by removing other ingredients. 

centrifugal fan: consists of a fan rotor or wheel within 
a scroll type of housing that discharges the air at right 
angle to the axis of the wheel. 

chimney: a brick, metal, or concrete stack. 

chimney core: the inner cylindrical section of a double- 
wall chimney, that is separated from the outer section by 
an air space. 

chimney lining: the material that forms the inner surface 
of the chimney. 

circular burner: a liquid, gaseous, or pulverized fuel 
burner having a circular opening through the furnace wall. 

closed fireroom system: a forced draft system in which 
combustion air is supplied by elevating the air pressure in 
the fireroom. 

coal: solid hydrocarbon fuel formed by ancient decom- 
position of woody substance under conditions of heat and 
pressure. 

coal burner: a burner for use with pulverized coal. 

coal gas: gas formed by the destructive distillation of 
coal. 

coal tar: black viscous liquid, one of the byproducts 
formed by distillation of coal. 

coke: fuel consisting largely of the fixed carbon and ash 
in coal obtained by the destructive distillation of bitumi- 
nous coal. 

coke breeze: fine coke screenings usually passing a V 2 m - 
(13 mm) or 3 / 4 in. (19 mm) screen opening. 

coke oven gas: gas produced by destructive distillation 
of bituminous coal in closed chambers. The heating value 
is 500 Btu/ft 3 (4 450 kCal/m 3 ) to 550 Btu/ft 3 
(4 395 kCal/m 3 ). 

coke oven tar: see coal tar. 



coking: the conversion by heating in the absence or near 
absence of air of a carbonaceous fuel, particularly certain 
bituminous coals, to a coherent, firm, cellular carbon prod- 
uct known as coke. 

colloidal fuel: mixture of fuel oil and powdered solid 
fuel. 

combustible: the heat producing constituents of a fuel. 

combustible loss: the loss representing the unliberated 
thermal energy occasioned by failure to oxidize completely 
some of the combustible matter in the fuel. 

combustion: the rapid chemical combination of oxygen 
with the combustible elements of a fuel resulting in the 
production of heat. 

combustion rate: the quantity of fuel fired per unit of 
time, as pounds of coal per hour, or cubic feet of gas per 
minute. 

complete combustion: the complete oxidation of all the 
combustible constituents of a fuel. 

conductor, electric: 

(a) ground: wire or other means of returning the elec- 
tric current to the earth. 

(b) neutral: current- carrying wire or other means of 
connection between the load in the circuit and ground. 

(c) load (hot): current-carrying wire or other means 
of connection between the electric source of power and 
the load in the circuit. 

control valve: a valve used to control the flow of air 
or gas. 

cracked residue: the fuel residue obtained by cracking 
crude oils. 

cracking: the thermal decomposition of complex hydro- 
carbons into simpler compounds of elements. 

crude oil: unrefined petroleum. 

damper: a device for introducing a variable resistance 
for regulating the volumetric flow of gas or air. 

(a) butterfly type: a single blade damper pivoted 
about its center. 

(b) curtain type: a damper, composed of flexible 
material, moving in a vertical plane as it is rolled. 

(c) flap type: a damper consisting of one or more 
blades each pivoted about one edge. 

(d) louver type: a damper consisting of several blades 
each pivoted about its center and linked together for simul- 
taneous operation. 

(e) slide type: a damper consisting of a single blade 
that moves substantially normal to the flow. 

damper loss: the reduction in the static pressure of a 
gas flowing across a damper. 

delayed combustion: a continuation of combustion 
beyond the furnace (see also secondary combustion). 

dew point: the temperature at which condensation starts. 

distillate fuels: liquid fuels distilled usually from crude 
petroleum, except residuals such as No. 5 and No. 6 fuel oil. 



2011a SECTION VI 



distillation: vaporization of a substance with subsequent 
recovery of the vapor by condensation often used in a less 
precise sense to refer to vaporization of volatile constit- 
uents of a fuel without subsequent condensation. 

draft: the difference between atmospheric pressure and 
some lower pressure existing in the furnace or gas passages 
of a steam generating unit. 

draft differential: the difference in static pressure 
between two points in a system. 

draft gage: a device for measuring draft, usually in 
inches of water. 

draft loss: the drop in the static pressure of a gas between 
two points in a system, both of which are below atmo- 
spheric pressure, and caused by resistances to flow. 

dual flow oil burner: a burner having an atomizer, usu- 
ally mechanical, having two sets of tangential slots, one 
set being used for low capacities and the other set for high 
capacities. 

duct: a passage for air or gas flow. 

electric ignition: ignition of a pilot or main flame by 
the use of an electric arc or glow plug. 

evase stack: an expanding connection on the outlet of 
a fan or in an air flow passage for the purpose of converting 
kinetic energy to potential energy, i.e., velocity pressure 
into static pressure. 

excess air: air supplied for combustion in excess of that 
theoretically required for complete oxidation. 

exhauster: a fan used to withdraw air or gases under 
suction. 

explosion: combustion that proceeds so rapidly that high 
pressure is generated suddenly. 

external-mix oil burner: a burner having an atomizer in 
which the liquid fuel is struck, after it has left an orifice, 
by a jet of high velocity steam or air. 

fan: a machine consisting of a rotor and housing for 
moving air or gases at relatively low pressure differentials. 

fan inlet area: the inside area of the fan inlet collar or 
connection. 

fan outlet area: the inside area of the fan outlet. 

fan performance: a measure of fan operation in terms 
of volume, total pressures, static pressures, speed, power 
input, mechanical and static efficiency, at a stated air 
density. 

fire point: the lowest temperature at which, under speci- 
fied conditions, fuel oil gives off enough vapor to burn 
continuously when ignited. 

fire scanner: device that is used to "look at" the main 
burner and/or the pilot flame. If the flame is there the 
scanner will be affected by some part of the flame and 
make or break an electric circuit to keep the fuel flowing. 

fishtail burner: a burner consisting of a diverging cham- 
ber having a rectangular outlet that is materially longer 
than it is wide. 



fixed carbon: the carbonaceous residue, less the ash, 
remaining in the test container after the volatile matter has 
been driven off in making the proximate analysis of a 
solid fuel. 

fixed grate: a grate that does not have movement. 

flame: a luminous body of burning gas or vapor. 

flame detector: a device that indicates if fuel, such as 
liquid, gaseous, or pulverized, is burning, or if ignition has 
been lost. The indication may be transmitted to a signal 
or to a control system. 

flame safeguard: 

(a) thermal: bimetallic strip thermocouple that is 
located in the pilot flame. If the pilot goes out a circuit is 
broken and the fuel valve is shut. Response time is 1 min 
to 3 min. Suitable for small installations. 

(b) electronic: electrode used in flame rectification 
system that detects pilot and main flame and prevents fuel 
flow if pilot is not detected or stops fuel flow if main flame 
is not detected. Response time is 1 sec to 4 sec. Suitable 
for large programmed installations. 

Photo cell, ultraviolet, or infrared detectors 'look at" 
the pilot and main flame and provide the same safeguard 
features as the electrode used in the flame rectification. 

flammability: susceptibility to combustion. 

flareback: a burst of flame from a furnace in a direction 
opposed to the normal flow, usually caused by the ignition 
of an accumulation of combustible gases. 

flare type burner: a circular burner from which the fuel 
and air are discharged in the form of a cone. 

flashpoint: the lowest temperature at which, under speci- 
fied conditions, fuel oil gives off enough vapor to flash 
into momentary flame when ignited. 

flat-flamed burner: a burner terminating in a substan- 
tially rectangular nozzle, from which fuel and air are dis- 
charged in a flat stream. 

flue: a passage for products of combustion. 

flue gas: the gaseous products of combustion in the flue 
to the stack. 

forced draft boiler: a boiler that operates with the furnace 
pressure higher than atmospheric. 

forced draft fan: a fan supplying air under pressure to 
the fuel burning equipment. 

forced draft stoker: a stoker in which the flow of air 
through the grate is caused by a pressure produced by 
mechanical means. 

front discharge stoker: a stoker so arranged that refuse 
is discharged from the grate surface at the same end as the 
coal feed. 

fuel: a substance containing combustible material used 
for generating heat. 

fuel-air mixture: mixture of fuel and air. 

fuel-air ratio: the ratio of the weight, or volume, of fuel 
to air. 

fuel bed: layer of burning fuel on a furnace grate. 



2011a SECTION VI 



fuel oil: a liquid fuel derived from petroleum or coal. 

furnace draft: the draft in a furnace, measured at a point 
immediately in front of the highest point at which the 
combustion gases leave the furnace. 

gas analysis: the determination of the constituents of a 
gaseous mixture. 

gas burner: a burner for use with gaseous fuel. 

grate: the surface on which fuel is supported and burned, 
and through which air is passed for combustion. 

grate bars: those parts of the fuel supporting surface 
arranged to admit air for combustion. 

gravity: weight index of fuels: liquid petroleum products 
expressed either as specific, Baume, or API (American 
Petroleum Institute) gravity; weight index of gaseous fuels 
as specific gravity related to air under specified conditions; 
or weight index of solid fuels as specific gravity related 
to water under specified conditions. 

hand-fired grate: a grate on which fuel is placed manu- 
ally, usually by means of a shovel. 

heat available: the thermal energy above a fixed datum 
that is capable of being absorbed for useful work. In boiler 
practice, the heat available in a furnace is usually taken 
to be the higher heating value of the fuel, corrected by 
subtracting radiation losses, unburned combustible, latent 
heat of the water in the fuel or of the water formed by the 
burning of hydrogen, and by adding the sensible heat in 
the air for combustion, all above ambient temperatures. 

heat balance: an accounting of the distribution of the 
heat input and output. 

heat release: the total quantity of thermal energy above 
a fixed datum introduced into a furnace by the fuel 
considered. 

high-heat value: see calorific value. 

hogged fuel: wood refuse after being chipped or shred- 
ded by a machine known as a "hog." 

horizontal firing: a means of firing liquid, gaseous, or 
pulverized fuel, in which the burners are so arranged in 
relation to the furnace as to discharge the fuel and air into 
the furnace in approximately a horizontal direction. 

hydrocarbon: a chemical compound of hydrogen and 
carbon. 

ignition: the initiation of combustion. 

ignition temperature: lowest temperature of a fuel at 
which combustion becomes self-sustaining. 

ignition torch: see lighting- off torch, 

illuminants: light oil or coal compounds that readily 
burn with a luminous flame such as ethylene, propylene, 
and benzene. 

impeller: as applied to pulverized coal burners, a round 
metal device located at the discharge of the coal nozzle in 
circular type burners, to deflect the fuel and primary air 
into the secondary air stream; as applied to oil burners, 
same as diffuser. 



inches water gage (in. w.g.): usual term for expressing 
a measurement of relatively low pressures or differentials 
by means of a U-tube. One inch w.g. (0.25 kPa) equals 
5.2 lb/ft 2 or 0.036 lb/in. 2 

incomplete combustion: the partial oxidation of the com- 
bustible constituent of a fuel. 

induced draft boiler: a boiler that operates with the 
furnace pressure less than atmospheric due to action of an 
induced draft fan. 

induced draft fan: a fan exhausting hot gases from the 
heat-absorbing equipment. 

inert gaseous constituents: incombustible gases such as 
nitrogen that may be present in a fuel. 

inlet boxes: an integral part of the fan enclosing the fan 
inlet or inlets to permit attachment of the fan to the duct 
system. 

integral blower: a blower built as an integral part of a 
device to supply air thereto. 

integral-blower burner: a burner of which the blower 
is an integral part. 

intermittent firing: a method of firing by which fuel and 
air are introduced into and burned in a furnace for a short 
period, after which the flow is stopped, this succession 
occurring in a sequence of frequent cycles. 

internal-mix oil burner: a burner having a mixing cham- 
ber in which high velocity steam or air impinges on jets of 
incoming liquid fuel that is then discharged in a completely 
atomized form. 

intertube burner: a burner that terminates in nozzles 
discharging between adjacent tubes. 

isolating transformer: one that provides for complete 
separation and overcurrent protection by fusing both leads 
of the primary circuit and the control lead of the secondary 
circuit. 

lighting-off torch: a torch used for igniting fuel from a 
burner. The torch may consist of asbestos wrapped around 
an iron rod and saturated with oil or may be a small oil 
or gas burner. 

lignite: a consolidated coal of low classification 
according to rank — moist (bed moisture only) Btu less 
than 8300 (MJ less than 8.76). 

long-flame burner: a burner in which the fuel emerges 
in such a condition, or one in which the air for combustion 
is admitted in such a manner, that the two do not readily 
mix, resulting in a comparatively long flame. 

low-heat value: the high heating value minus the latent 
heat of vaporization of the water formed by burning the 
hydrogen in the fuel. 

luminosity: emissive power with respect to visible 
radiation. 

manometer: device used to detect small changes in pres- 
sure, usually a tube with water, the pressure variations 
measured in inches of water. 



10 



2011a SECTION VI 



manufactured gas: fuel gas manufactured from coal, oil, 
etc., as differentiated from natural gas. 

mechanical atomizing oil burner: a burner that uses the 
pressure of the oil. for atomization. 

mechanical draft: the negative pressure created by 
mechanical means. 

mechanical efficiency: the ratio of power output to 
power input. 

mechanical stoker: a device consisting of a mechanically 
operated fuel feeding mechanism and a grate, used for the 
purpose of feeding solid fuel into a furnace, distributing 
it over the grate, admitting air to the fuel for the purpose 
of combustion, and providing a means for removal or dis- 
charge of refuse. 

(a) overfeed stoker: a stoker in which fuel is fed onto 
grates above the point of air admission to the fuel bed. 
Overfeed stokers are divided into four classes, as follows: 

(1) front feed inclined grate stoker: an overfeed 
stoker in which fuel is fed from the front onto a grate 
inclined downwards toward the rear of the stoker. 

(2) double-inclined side feed stoker: an overfeed 
stoker in which the fuel is fed from both sides onto grates 
inclined downwards toward the center line of the stoker. 

(3) chain or traveling grate: an overfeed stoker hav- 
ing a moving endless grate that conveys fuel into and 
through the furnace where it is burned, after which it dis- 
charges the refuse. 

(4) spreader stoker: an overfeed stoker that dis- 
charges fuel into the furnace from a location above the 
fuel bed and distributes the fuel onto the grate. 

(b) underfeed stoker: a stoker in which fuel is intro- 
duced through retorts at a level below the location of air 
admission to the fuel bed. Underfeed stokers are divided 
into three general classes, as follows: 

(1) side ash discharge underfeed stoker: a stoker hav- 
ing one or more retorts that feed and distribute solid fuel 
onto side tuyeres or a grate through which air is admitted 
for combustion and over which the ash is discharged at 
the side parallel to the retorts. 

(2) rear ash discharge underfeed stoker: a stoker hav- 
ing a grate composed of transversely spaced underfeed 
retorts, that feed and distribute solid fuel to intermediate 
rows of tuyeres through which air is admitted for combus- 
tion. The ash is discharged from the stoker across the 
rear end. 

(3) continuous ash discharge underfeed stoker: one 
in which the refuse is discharged continuously from the 
normally stationary stoker ash tray to the ash pit without 
the use of mechanical means other than the normal action 
of the coal feeding and agitating mechanism. 

modulation of burner: control of fuel and air to a burner 
to match fluctuations of the load on the boiler. 
moisture: water in the liquid or vapor phase. 



moisture loss: the loss representing the difference in the 
heat content of the moisture in the exit gases and that at 
the temperature of the ambient air. 

multifuel burner: a burner by means of which more than 
one fuel can be burned, either separately or simultaneously, 
such as pulverized fuel, oil, or gas. 

multiple-retort stoker: an underfeed stoker consisting of 
two or more retorts, parallel and adjacent to each other, 
but separated by a line of tuyeres, and arranged so that the 
refuse is discharged at the ends of the retorts. 

multiport burner: a burner having a number of nozzles 
from which fuel and air are discharged. 

natural draft boiler: a boiler that operates with the fur- 
nace pressure less than atmospheric due to buoyant action 
of the venting system. 

natural draft stoker: a stoker in which the flow of air 
through the grate is caused by difference of pressure 
between the furnace and the atmosphere. 

natural gas: gaseous fuel occurring in nature. 

neutral atmosphere: an atmosphere that tends neither to 
oxidize nor reduce immersed materials. 

oil burner: a burner for firing oil. 

oil cone: the cone of finely atomized oil discharged from 
an oil atomizer. 

oil gas: gas produced from petroleum. 

orifice: the opening from the whirling chamber of a 
mechanical atomizer or the mixing chamber of a steam 
atomizer through which the liquid fuel is discharged. 

orsat: a gas-analysis apparatus in which certain gaseous 
constituents are measured by absorption in separate chemi- 
cal solutions. 

overfre draft: air pressure that exists in the furnace of 
a boiler when the main flame occurs. 

oxidation: chemical combination with oxygen. 

oxidizing atmosphere: an atmosphere that tends to pro- 
mote the oxidation of immersed materials. 

peat: an accumulation of compacted and partially devol- 
atilized vegetable matter with high moisture content; an 
early stage of coal formation. 

perfect combustion: the complete oxidation of all the 
combustible constituents of a fuel, utilizing all the oxygen 
supplied. 

petroleum: naturally occurring mineral oil consisting 
predominately of hydrocarbons. 

petroleum coke: solid carbonaceous residue remaining 
in oil refining stills after the distillation process. 

pilot flame: the flame, usually gas or light oil, that ignites 
the main flame. 

pour point: the temperature at which the oil flows. 

preheated air: air at a temperature exceeding that of the 
ambient air. 

primary air: air introduced with the fuel at the burners. 

primary air fan: a fan to supply primary air for combus- 
tion of fuel. 



11 



2011a SECTION VI 



producer gas: gaseous fuel obtained by burning solid 
fuel in a chamber where a mixture of air and steam is 
passed through the incandescent fuel bed. This process 
results in a gas, almost oxygen free, containing a large 
percentage of the original heating value of the solid fuel 
in the form of CO and H 3 . 

products of combustion: the gases, vapors, and solids 
resulting from the combustion of fuel. 

puff: a minor combustion explosion within the boiler 
furnace or setting. 

pulverized fuel: solid fuel reduced to a fine size. 

purge meter interlock: a flowmeter so arranged that an 
air flow through the furnace above a minimum amount 
must exist for a definite time interval before the inter- 
locking system will permit an automatic ignition torch to 
be placed in operation. 

pyrites: a compound of iron and sulfur naturally 
occurring in coal. 

radiation loss: a comprehensive term used in a boiler- 
unit heat balance to account for the conduction, radiation, 
and convection heat losses from the settings to the ambi- 
ent air. 

reciprocating grate: a grate element that has reciprocat- 
ing motion, usually for the purpose of fuel agitation. 

refinery gas: the commercially noncondensable gas 
resulting from fractional distillation of crude oil, or the 
cracking of crude oil or petroleum distillates. Refinery gas 
is either burned at the refineries or supplied for mixing 
with city gas. 

register: the apparatus used in a burner to regulate the 
direction of flow of air for combustion. 

relative humidity: the ratio of the weight of water vapor 
present in a unit volume of gas to the maximum possible 
weight of water vapor in unit volume of the same gas at 
the same temperature and pressure. 

relay: electrical device that contains a coil that makes 
and /or breaks sets of contacts as the coil is energized and 
de-energized. 

residual fuels: products remaining from crude petroleum 
by removal of some of the water and an appreciable per- 
centage of the more volatile hydrocarbons. 

return flow oil burner: a mechanical atomizing oil burner 
in which part of the oil supplied to the atomizer is with- 
drawn and returned to storage or to the oil line supplying 
the atomizer. 

Ringlemann chart: a series of four rectangular grids of 
black lines of varying widths printed on a white back- 
ground, and used as a criterion of blackness for determining 
smoke density. 

rotary oil burner: a burner in which atomization is 
accomplished by feeding oil to the inside of a rapidly 
rotating cup. 



safety control: devices incorporated in the burner control 
circuitry and on the burner to allow flow of the fuel only 
if required steps and conditions are met. 

saturated air: air that contains the maximum amount of 
water vapor that it can hold at its temperature and pressure. 

secondary air: air for combustion supplied to the furnace 
to supplement the primary air. 

secondary combustion: combustion that occurs as a 
result of ignition at a point beyond the furnace (see also 
delayed combustion). 

sediment: a noncombustible solid matter that settles out 
at bottom of a liquid; a small percentage is present in 
residual fuel oils. 

smoke: small gasborne particles of carbon or soot, less 
than 1 pin. (0.025 fxm) size, resulting from incomplete 
combustion of carbonaceous material and of sufficient 
number to be observable. 

soot: unburned particles of carbon derived from 
hydrocarbons. 

specific heat: the quantity of heat, expressed in Btu, 
required to raise the temperature of 1 lb (0.45 kg) of a 
substance 1°F (0.556°C). 

specific humidity: the weight of water vapor in a gas- 
water vapor mixture per unit weight of dry gas. 

spontaneous combustion: ignition of combustible mate- 
rial following slow oxidation without the application of 
high temperature from an external source. 

spray angle: the angle included between the sides of the 
cone formed by liquid fuel discharged from mechanical, 
rotary atomizers and by some forms of steam or air 
atomizers. 

spray nozzle: a nozzle from which a fuel is discharged 
in the form of a spray. 

sprayer plate: a metal plate used to atomize the fuel in 
the atomizer of an oil burner. 

stack: a vertical conduit, that, due to the difference in 
density between internal and external gases, creates a draft 
at its base. 

stack draft: the magnitude of the draft measured at inlet 
to the stack. 

stack effect: that portion of a pressure differential 
resulting from difference in elevation of the points of 
measurement. 

standard air: dry air weighing 0.075 lb/ft 3 (1.2 kg/m 3 ) 
at sea level [29.92 in. (760 mm Hg) barometric pressure] 
and 70°F (21°C). 

static pressure: the measure of potential energy of a 
fluid. 

stationary grate: a grate having no moving parts. 

steam atomizing oil burner: a burner for firing oil that 
is atomized by steam. It may be of the inside or outside 
mixing type. 

stoker: see mechanical stoker. 



12 



2011a SECTION VI 



strainer, fuel oil: metal screen with small openings to 
retain solids and particles in fuel oil that could detrimen- 
tally affect the operation of the oil burner, 

stratification: nonhomogeneity existing transversely in 
a gas stream. 

surface combustion: the nonluminous burning of a com- 
bustible gaseous mixture close to the surface of a hot 
porous refractory material through which it has passed. 

tempering air: air at a lower temperature added to a 
stream of preheated air to modify its temperature. 

tertiary air: air for combustion supplied to the furnace 
to supplement the primary and secondary air. 

theoretical air: the quantity of air required for perfect 
combustion. 

theoretical draft: the draft that would be available at the 
base of a stack if there were no friction or acceleration 
losses in the stack. 

therm: a unit of heat applied especially to gas; 1 therm 
equals 100,000 Btu (105.5 MJ). 

torching: the rapid burning of combustible material 
deposited on or near boiler-unit heating surfaces. 



total air: the total quantity of air supplied to the fuel 
and products of combustion. Percent total air is the ratio 
of total air to theoretical air, expressed as percent. 

turbulent burner: a burner in which fuel and air are 
mixed and discharged into the furnace in such a manner 
as to produce turbulent flow from the burner. 

unbumed combustible: the combustible portion of the 
fuel that is not completely oxidized. 

vertical firing: an arrangement of a burner such that air 
and fuel are discharged into the furnace, in practically a 
vertical direction. 

viscosity: measure of the internal friction of a fluid or 
its resistance to flow. 

volatility: measurement of a fuel oil' s ability to vaporize. 

water gas: gaseous fuel consisting primarily of carbon 
monoxide and hydrogen made by the interaction of steam 
and incandescent carbon. 

wide-range mechanical atomizing oil burner: a burner 
having an oil atomizer with a range of flow rates greater 
than that obtainable with the usual mechanical atomizers. 

windbox: a chamber below the grate or surrounding a 
burner, through which air under pressure is supplied for 
combustion of the fuel. 



13 



2011a SECTION VI 



2* TYPES OF BOILERS 



2,01 



CLASSIFICATION 



2.03 



CAST IRON BOILERS 



The two most general classifications of heating boilers 
pertain to the method of manufacture, i.e., by casting or 
fabrication. Those that are cast usually use iron, bronze, 
or brass in their construction. Those that are fabricated use 
steel, copper, or brass, with steel being the most common 
material used. 



2.02 



STEEL BOILERS 



Steel boilers can be generally divided into two types, 
firetube and watertube. In firetube boilers, the gases of 
combustion pass through the tubes and the water circulates 
around them. In watertube boilers, the water passes through 
the tube and the combustion gases pass around them. 

A. Firetube Boilers 

(1) Horizontal Return Tube (HRT). Figure 2.02A-1 
shows a brick- set boiler of this type. The furnace may also 
be constructed of steel. 

(2) Scotch-Type Boilers, The scotch boilers used in 
modern heating systems are similar to those originally 
designed for shipboard installation and are sometimes 
called scotch marine boilers. The furnace is a cylinder 
completely surrounded by water. See Fig. 2.02A-2. 

Most scotch boilers are of the dry- back or partial wet- 
back design and are arranged for multiple gas passes. See 
Fig. 2.02A-2. 

(3 ) Firebox Boilers. Firebox boilers have the firebox 
integral with the boiler, such as the oil field or locomotive 
type, and may be single or multiple pass. The furnace of 
this type boiler is usually enclosed in water-cooled upper 
sheet, called a crown sheet. Various tube and shell configu- 
rations, characterizing different manufacturers' designs, 
complete the boilers. See Figs. 2.02A-3, 2.02A-4, and 
2.02 A-5. 

(4) Vertical Firetube Boilers. In vertical firetube boil- 
ers, the products of combustion pass up through the tubes 
that are surrounded by water. See Fig. 2.02A-6. 

B. Watertube Boilers. Watertube boilers are made in 
a variety of configurations with respect to tube and drum 
arrangement. 



Cast iron boilers are made in three general types: hori- 
zontal sectional, vertical sectional, and one-piece. 

Most of the sectional boilers are assembled with push 
nipples or grommet type seals, but some are assembled 
with external headers and screwed nipples. 

NOTE: Manufacturer's recommendations should be followed when 
adjusting nipples or tie rods. Excess tension on tie rods may be detrimental 
to the boiler. 

A. Horizontal Sectional Cast Iron Boilers. Horizontal 
sectional cast iron boilers are made up of sections stacked 
one above the other, like pancakes, and assembled with 
push nipples. See Fig. 2. 03 A. 

B. Vertical Sectional Cast Iron Boilers. Vertical sec- 
tional cast iron boilers are made up with sections standing 
vertically like slices in a loaf of bread. See Fig. 2.03B. 

C. One-Piece Cast Iron Boilers. One-piece cast iron 
boilers are those in which the pressure vessel is made as 
a single casting. 



2.04 



MODULAR BOILERS 



A modular boiler is an assembly of small boilers 
designed to take the place of a single large boiler. The small 
boilers are called modules and are manifolded together 
at the jobsite, without any intervening stop valves. It is 
important that the manufacturer's installation instructions 
be followed to assure proper assembly, correct control 
location, and proper flow through each module. 

Figures 2.04A and 2.04B show the two piping arrange- 
ments that are specified by various manufacturers. 

There is sometimes confusion between modular boilers 
and multiple boilers. Modular boilers have no intervening 
stop valves so some controls can be mountedon the mani- 
fold. Multiple boilers have stop valves so every individual 
boiler must have all the controls required by the Code. 



2.05 



VACUUM BOILERS 



Vacuum boilers are factory sealed steam boilers that are 
operated below atmospheric pressure. 



14 



2011a SECTION VI 



FIG. 2.02A-1 HORIZONTAL RETURN TUBE, BRICK-SET 




FIG. 2.02A-2 GAS FLOW PATTERNS OF SCOTCH-TYPE BOILERS 




1 \ 








g rspssr. m :-'rrr ""TTTTr 


J 









Dry-Back, Two-Pass, Oil- or <B§s~Fired 
Corrugated Furnace 



U 



r^ 









Wet-Back Top, Two-Pass, Oil- or Gas-Fifed 



Dry-Bade Two-Pass, Coal-Fired Dry-Back, Three-Pass, ON- or Gas*Fir*d 



15 



2011a SECTION VI 



FIG. 2.02A-3 TYPE C FIREBOX BOILER 




JxJL 



t r 



V 









V 



w 



o r :■■ ? rr- z=z3z 



^^^^^J 






T/-/„/„.Z Z / / /YTT "/ / / / / / v ' /yy;?-/-; 777 ^ 




FIG. 2.02A-4 THREE-PASS FIREBOX BOILER 



v*j 



J| 










/* ^m mmmm ^mmwmssymmk 



1* 



^^$&$s^: 



s\\\\\s\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ \\\ \v 




16 



2011a SECTION VI 



FIG. 2.02A-5 LOCOMOTIVE FIREBOX BOILER 



ft 



JbIL 



*N. 



33 



-:—- ,*- 



x *\ 



^ 




FIG. 2.02A-6 VERTICAL FIRETUBE BOILER 




17 



2011a SECTION VI 



FIG. 2.03A HORIZONTAL 
SECTIONAL CAST IRON BOILER 



FIG. 2.03B VERTICAL 
SECTIONAL CAST IRON BOILER 





FIG. 2.04A MODULES CONNECTED WITH PARALLEL PIPING 




FIG. 2.04B MODULES CONNECTED WITH PRIMARY-SECONDARY PIPING 



-^ 



Main pump 






18 



2011a SECTION VI 



3. ACCESSORIES AND INSTALLATION 



ACCESSORIES 

(10) 3.01 SAFETY AND SAFETY RELIEF 

(a) VALVES 

Safety and safety relief valves are used to relieve exces- 
sive pressure generated within a boiler. The safety or safety 
relief valve (or valves) is the final line of protection against 
overpressure in the boiler. They discharge a volume of 
steam and hot water when relieving (see 3.201, Safety and 
Safety Relief Valve Discharge Piping). This is the most 
important single safety device on any boiler. These valves 
shall bear the Certification Mark with HV Designator, as 
illustrated in Fig. 3.01, to signify compliance with 
Section IV. 

A. Safety Valves. A safety valve is an automatic pres- 
sure relieving device actuated by the pressure generated 
within the boiler and characterized by full-opening pop 
action. It is used for steam service. Valves are of the 
spring-loaded pop type and are factory set and sealed. See 
Fig. 3.01A. 

B. Safety Relief Valves. A safety relief valve is an 
automatic pressure relieving device actuated by the pres- 
sure generated within the boiler. It is used primarily on 
water boilers. Valves of this type are spring loaded without 
full-opening pop action and have a factory set nonadjust- 
able pressure setting. See Fig. 3.0 IB. 

C. Temperature and Pressure Safety Relief Valves. 
A temperature and pressure safety relief valve is a safety 
relief valve, as described in B above, that also incorporates 
a thermal sensing relief element that is actuated by the 
upstream water temperature. It is set at 210°F (99°C) or 
lower. 



3.02 LOW- WATER FUEL CUTOFFS AND 
WATER FEEDERS 

Low-water fuel cutoffs are designed to provide protec- 
tion against hazardous low-water conditions in heating 
boilers. Records indicate that many boiler failures result 
from low- water conditions. Low- water fuel cutoffs may 
be generally divided into two types, float and probe. 

A. Float Type Low- Water Fuel Cutoffs. Float type 
low-water fuel cutoffs may be in combination with a water 
feeder or constructed as a separate unit. The combination 



FIG. 3.01 OFFICIAL CERTIFICATION MARK (a) 




feeder cutoff units are generally used on steam boilers 
while the cutoff units are sometimes installed on hot water 
boilers, or as a second cutoff on steam boilers. A feeder 
cutoff combination adds water as needed to maintain a 
safe minimum water level and stops the firing device if 
the water level falls to the lowest permissible level. Both 
operations are accomplished by the movement of the float 
that is linked to the water valve or pump control and burner 
cutoff switch. The units that serve as fuel cutoffs only are 
basically the same as the combination unit but without 
the water feeder valve. (See Fig. 3. 02 A.) A water feeder 
installation normally acts as an operating device to main- 
tain a predetermined safe water level in the boiler. 

B. Electric Probe Type Low-Water Fuel Cutoffs. 
Electric probe type low- water fuel cutoffs may be contained 
in a water column mounted externally on the boiler or 
may be mounted on the boiler shell. Some consist of two 
electrodes (probes) that under normal conditions are 
immersed in the boiler water with a small current being 
conducted from one electrode to the other to energize a 
relay. Others use one probe and the boiler shell, in effect, 
becomes the other probe. If the water level drops suffi- 
ciently to uncover the probes, the current flow stops and 
the relay operates to shut off the burner. See Fig. 3.02B. 



3.03 



TRAPS 



A steam trap is a device put on steam lines and on the 
outlet of heating units to permit the exit of air and conden- 
sate but to prevent the passage of steam. The types of 
steam traps in common use are: thermostatic, float, combi- 
nation float and thermostatic, and bucket. See Figs. 3.03-1 
through 3.03-4. 



19 



2011a SECTION VI 



FIG. 3.01A SAFETY VALVE 




3.04 



AIR ELIMINATORS 



Air eliminators are sometimes installed on hot water 
boilers to eliminate air from the system as it is released 
from the water within the boiler. 



3.05 CONDENSATE RETURN PUMPS AND 
RETURN LOOP 

Condensate return pumps are used on either one or two 
pipe steam systems to return condensate to the boiler where 
this cannot be done by gravity. They are generally used 
in conjunction with a reservoir (condensate return tank) 
and a float operated switch for starting the pump motor. 
Where two boilers are connected together and served from 
one condensate return pump, a vacuum breaker may be 
required on the idle boiler to prevent the formation of a 
vacuum that will affect the functioning of the feed valve. 
The return pipe connections of each boiler supplying a 
gravity return of a steam heating system should be so 
arranged as to form a loop substantially as shown in 



Fig. 3.05 so that the water in each boiler cannot be forced 
below the safe water level. The loop is required in gravity 
systems and may be included in pump return systems. 

Pumped feedwater returns, when connected to a return 
loop, should be connected directly to the lower boiler con- 
nection of the loop because under some circumstances a 
connection to the return loop near the boiler waterline may 
cause objectionable noise or water hammer. 



3.06 



VACUUM RETURN PUMP 



The vacuum return pump is used in larger steam systems 
to create a partial vacuum in the return lines of the heating 
system and thus assist in the return of the condensate, 
elimination of air, and equal distribution of steam. 

3.07 CIRCULATORS (CIRCULATING 

PUMPS) 

Circulators are basically centrifugal pump units used on 
hot water heating systems to force the flow of water through 
the system. 



20 



2011a SECTION VI 



FIG. 3.01B SAFETY RELIEF VALVE 




FIG. 3.02A FLOAT TYPE LOW-WATER CUTOFF 




21 



2011a SECTION VI 



FIG. 3.02B ELECTRIC PROBE TYPE LOW-WATER CONTROL 



Boiler 



Optional 
mounting 
for cutoff 
electrode 




120 V power 
supply 



Low-water 

cutoff 
6 (strode 



Automatic Bolter Water Fted arid 
Low-Water Cutoff - For St#am 



To wattr feed 
pump or valve 

^To burner 
limit control 

, To alarm 

system 



Boiler 



Optional 
mounting 



120 V power 
supply 

_.i_L 




To burner 
limit control 

To alarm 
system 



LowMfttet@r Cutoff — For Steam 



y > 



Optional 
mounting 



Boiler 



. 120 V power 

* supply 
I 




To burner 
•** Hmit control 

„,^ To alarm 
system 



Alternate mounting in 
T in. hot water line 



Low-Watw Cutoff — For Hot Water 



22 



2011a SECTION VI 



FIG. 3.03-1 TH ERMOSTATIC TRAP 



FIG. 3.03-4 BUCKET TRAP WITH TRAP CLOSED 




FIG. 3.03-2 FLOAT TRAP 



Valve access plug 



Air vent 



Float 



Valve 




Air passage 



Inlet 



Drain plug 



Valve 



Outlet 



Inlet 




Air vent 



Plunger 



3.08 



EXPANSION TANK 



Expansion tanks are used on hot water systems to allow 
for the expansion of the water when it is heated. An air 
cushion in the tank is compressed by the expanding water. 



3.09 



OIL PREHEATERS 



FIG. 3.03-3 FLOAT AND THERMOSTATIC TRAP 



Inlet 




Outlet 



Oil preh eaters are used to condition the heavier grades 
of fuel oil. for handling and burning. They may be used in 
the oil storage tank or at the burner (or at both locations), 
depending upon the requirements of the oil burned. 



3.10 FUEL OIL STORAGE AND SUPPLY 

SYSTEMS 

A fuel oil storage and supply system may consist of a 
tank, connecting piping, and necessary strainers only, or 
it may require a transfer pump, depending upon the location 
of the tank and the grade of oil being used. Oils of Grade 
4, 5, or 6, and sometimes Grade 2 require hot water or 
steam heating coils to be installed in the tanks. The fuel 
oil temperature should be controlled to permit satisfactory 
flowing or pumping in the presence of low outside 
temperatures. 



23 



2011a SECTION VI 



FIG. 3.05 TYPICAL RETURN LOOP 




Ctpter.'fiipplt 



Lcmwt mf® 



=0 



Return 



3.11 



PRESSURE GAGE 



Pressure gages are used on both steam and hot water 
boilers. There are three basic types of pressure gages, 
namely bourdon, bellow, and spiral (see Fig. 3.11). The 
bourdon tube has the widest range of application and is 
by far the most common. It consists of a hollow tube with 
an oval cross section that tends to straighten when the 
pressure is increased. The end of the bourdon tube is con- 
nected to the gage pointer by a mechanical linkage. The 
material used in the bourdon tube is usually an alloy steel 
monel or stainless steel depending on the type of service. 
The bellow type gage is normally used for pressures below 
30 psi (200 kPa). Gages are usually damaged by overpres- 
sure, corrosion of tube or linkage, or wear of linkage. 

A. Gage Range. The gage range should be selected so 
that the gage will normally operate in the middle of the 
scale. For example, if the operating pressure is 50 psi 
(350 kPa), then a 100 psi (700 kPa) gage should be used. 
For steam heating boilers, the gage should have a range 
of not less than 30 psi (200 kPa) nor more than 60 psi 
(400 kPa); and for hot water boilers, not less than 1 % times 
nor more than 3 ] / 2 times the safety relief valve setting. 

B. Accuracy. The gage accuracy is expressed in percent 
of full scale reading. For example, if a 100 psi (700 kPa) 
gage is 2% accurate, then it will be within ±2 psi (±14 kPa) 



of the actual pressure. A gage is usually more accurate at 
mid- scale and should be calibrated at that point. Most gages 
used on boilers have an accuracy of 1% to l ] / 2 %. An 
inspector gage is usually V 2 % accurate and a laboratory 
gage may have an accuracy of \%, 

C. Calibration. The gage used on a boiler should be 
calibrated at least once per year. This can be accomplished 
by comparing it to an inspector gage or using a deadweight 
tester. If an inspector gage is used, the accuracy of that 
gage should be verified with a deadweight tester at least 
once every 2 years. If the gage is damaged or cannot 
be calibrated to provide consistent readings, it should be 
discarded and replaced with a new gage. 

D. Siphon Tube. On a steam boiler, a siphon tube (pig- 
tail) is required to protect the gage from steam. A valve 
is also provided to facilitate demand and servicing of 
the gage. 



INSTALLATION 

NOTE: The following is taken from the mandatory rules of Section IV 
that apply to the boiler when manufactured and initially installed. The 
use of the word "shall" throughout reflects the mandatory nature of the 
Section IV requirements. The reader should consult the latest edition of 
Section IV for the current requirements. 



24 



2011a SECTION VI 



FIG. 3.11 PRESSURE GAGES 




fellow 



Spiral 



25 



2011a SECTION VI 



TABLE 3.20 
MINIMUM POUNDS OF STEAM PER HOUR PER 
SQUARE FOOT OF HEATING SURFACE (kg/h/m 2 ) 





Firetube 


Watertube 


Boiler Heating Surface 


Boilers 


Boilers 


Hand fired 


5 (24) 


6 (29) 


Stoker fired 


7 (34) 


8 (39) 


Oil, gas, or pulverized 






fuel fired 


8 (39) 


10 (49) 


Waterwall heating surface: 






Hand fired 


8 (39) 


8 (39) 


Stoker fired 


10 (49) 


12 (59) 


Oil, gas, or pulverized 






fuel fired 


14 (68) 


16 (78) 



GENERAL NOTES: 

(a) When a boiler is fired only by a gas having a heat value not in 
excess of 200 Btu/ft 3 (7400 kj/m 3 ), the minimum safety valve or 
safety relief valve relieving capacity may be based on the values 
given for hand fired boilers above. 

(b) The minimum safety valve or safety relief valve relieving capacity 
for electric boilers shall be 3 l / 2 Ib/hr/kW (1.6 kg/h/kW) input. 

(c) For heating surface determination, see 3.20B. 

(d) For extended heating surface, the minimum lb/hr/ft 2 (kg/h/m 2 ) shall 
be determined by the Manufacturer (see 3.20B). 



3.20 PRESSURE RELIEVING VALVE 

REQUIREMENTS 

(a) A. Safety Valve Requirements for Steam Boilers 

(1) Each steam boiler shall have one or more offi- 
cially rated safety valves, identified with the Certification 
Mark with V or HV Designator, of the spring pop type 
adjusted and sealed to discharge at a pressure not to exceed 
15 psi (100 MPa). 

(2) No safety valve for a steam boiler shall be smaller 
than NPS V 2 (DN 15). No safety valve shall be larger than 
NPS 4 (DN 100). 

(3) The minimum relieving capacity of valve or 
valves shall be governed by the capacity marking on the 
boiler called for in HG-530 of Section IV. 

(4) The minimum valve capacity in pounds per hour 
shall be the greater of that determined by dividing the 
maximum Btu output at the boiler nozzle obtained by the 
firing of any fuel for which the unit is installed by 1000, 
or shall be determined on the basis of the pounds of steam 
generated per hour per square foot of boiler heating surface 
as given in Table 3.20. For cast iron boilers the minimum 
valve capacity shall be determined by the maximum output 
method. In many cases a greater relieving capacity of 
valves will have to be provided than the minimum specified 
by these rules. In every case, the requirement of 3.20C(5) 
below shall be met. 

(5) The safety valve capacity for each steam boiler 
shall be such that with the fuel burning equipment installed, 
and operated at maximum capacity, the pressure cannot 



rise more than 5 psi (35 kPa) above the maximum allowable 
working pressure. 

(6) When operating conditions are changed, or addi- 
tional boiler heating surface is installed, the valve capacity 
shall be increased, if necessary, to meet the new conditions 
and be in accordance with 3.20C(5) above. The additional 
valves required, on account of changed conditions, may 
be installed on the outlet piping provided there is no 
intervening valve. 

B. Heating Surface. The heating surface shall be com- 
puted as follows. 

(1) Heating surface as part of a circulating system in 
contact on one side with water or wet steam being heated 
on the other side with gas or refractory being cooled, shall 
be measured on the side receiving heat. 

(2 ) Boiler heating surface and other equivalent sur- 
face outside the furnace shall be measured circumferen- 
tially plus any extended surface. 

(3) Waterwall heating surface and other equivalent 
surface within the furnace shall be measured as the pro- 
jected tube area (diameter x length) plus any extended 
surface on the furnace side. In computing the heating sur- 
face for this purpose, only the tubes, fireboxes, shells, 
tubesheet, and the projected area of the headers need be 
considered, except that for vertical firetube steam boilers, 
only that portion of the tube surface up to the middle of 
the gage glass is to be computed. 

(4) When extended surfaces or fins are used, the total 
surface representing the extended surface and its maximum 
designed generating capacity per square foot, as determined 
by the Manufacturer, and recorded in the remarks section 
of the Manufacturer's Data Report and noted on the stamp- 
ing or nameplate as shown in Section IV, Figs. HG-530.2 
and HG-530.3, shall be included in the total minimum 
relief valve capacity marked on the stamping or nameplate. 

C. Safety Relief Valve Requirements for Hot Water 
Boilers 

(1) Each hot water heating or supply boiler shall have 
at least one officially rated safety relief valve of the auto- 
matic reseating type, identified with the Certification Mark 
with V or HV Designator, and set to relieve at or below 
the maximum allowable working pressure of the boiler. 

(2) Hot water heating or supply boilers limited to a 
water temperature not in excess of 210°F (99°C) may have, 
in lieu of the valve(s) specified in 3.20C(1) above, one or 
more officially rated temperature and pressure safety relief 
valves of the automatic reseating type identified with the 
Certification Mark with HV Designator, and set to relieve 
at or below the maximum allowable working pressure of 
the boiler. 



(a) 



26 



2011a SECTION VI 



(3) When more than one safety relief valve is used 
on either hot water heating or hot water supply boilers, 
the additional valves shall be officially rated and may have 
a set pressure within a range not to exceed 6 psi (41 kPa) 
above the maximum allowable working pressure of the 
boiler up to and including 60 psi (400 kPa), and 5% for 
those having a maximum allowable working pressure 
exceeding 60 psi (400 kPa). 

(4) No safety relief valve shall be smaller than NPS % 
(DN 20) nor larger than NPS 4 [ / 2 (DN 115) except that 
boilers having a heat input not greater than 15,000 Btu/h 
(4.4 kW) may be equipped with a rated safety relief valve 
of NPS y 2 (DN 15). 

(5) The required steam relieving capacity, in pounds 
per hour, of the pressure relieving device or devices on a 
boiler shall be the greater of that determined by dividing 
the maximum output in Btu at the boiler nozzle obtained 
by the firing of any fuel for which the unit is installed by 
1000, or shall be determined on the basis of pounds of 
steam generated per hour per square foot of boiler heating 
surface as given in Table 3.20. For cast iron boilers con- 
structed to the requirements of Part HC of Section IV, 
the minimum valve capacity shall be determined by the 
maximum output method. In many cases a greater relieving 
capacity of valves will have to be provided than the mini- 
mum specified by these rules. In every case, the require- 
ments of 3.20C(7) below shall be met. 

(6) When operating conditions are changed, or addi- 
tional boiler heating surface is installed, the valve capacity 
shall be increased, if necessary, to meet the new conditions 
and shall be in accordance with 3.20C(7) below. The addi- 
tional valves required, on account of changed conditions, 
may be installed on the outlet piping provided there is no 
intervening valve. 

(7) Safety relief valve capacity for each boiler with 
a single safety relief valve shall be such that, with the 
fuel burning equipment installed and operated at maximum 
capacity, the pressure cannot rise more than 10% above 
the maximum allowable working pressure. When more 
than one safety relief valve is used, the overpressure shall 
be limited to 10% above the set pressure of the highest set 
valve allowed by 3.20C(1) above. 

D. Permissible Mounting. Safety valves and safety 
relief valves shall be located in the top or side 1 of the 
boiler. They shall be connected directly to a tapped or 
flanged opening in the boiler, to a fitting connected to the 
boiler by a short nipple, to a Y-base, or to a valveless header 
connecting steam or water outlets on the same boiler. Coil 
or header type boilers shall have the safety valve or safety 
relief valve located on the steam or hot water outlet end. 



The top or side of the boiler means the highest practicable part of the 
boiler proper, but in no case shall the safety valve be located on the boiler 
below the normal operating level and in no case shall the safety relief valve 
be located below the lowest permissible water level. 



Safety valves and safety relief valves shall be installed 
with their spindles vertical. The opening or connection 
between the boiler and any safety valve or safety relief 
valve shall have at least the area of the valve inlet. 

E* Requirements for Common Connections for Two 

or More Valves 

(1) When a boiler is fitted with two or more safety 
valves on one connection, this connection shall have a 
cross-sectional area not less than the combined areas of 
inlet connections of all the safety valves with which it 
connects. 

(2) When a Y-base is used, the inlet area shall be not 
less than the combined outlet areas. When the size of the 
boiler requires a safety valve or safety relief valve larger 
than NPS 4 ] / 2 (DN 115), two or more valves having the 
required combined capacity shall be used. When two or 
more valves are used on a boiler, they may be single, 
directly attached, or mounted on a Y-base. 

F. Threaded Connections. A threaded connection may 
be used for attaching a valve. 

G. Prohibited Mountings. Safety and safety relief 
valves shall not be connected to an internal pipe in the 
boiler. 

H. Use of Shutoff Valves Prohibited. No shutoff of 
any description shall be placed between the safety or safety 
relief valve and the boiler, or on discharge pipes between 
such valves and the atmosphere. 

I. Safety and Safety Relief Valve Discharge Piping (10) 

(1) A discharge pipe shall be used. Its internal cross- 
sectional area shall be not less than the full area of the 
valve outlet or of the total of the valve outlets discharging 
thereinto and shall be as short and straight as possible and 
so arranged as to avoid undue stress on the valve or valves. 
A union may be installed in the discharge piping close to 
the valve outlet (see Fig. 3.201). When an elbow is placed 
on a safety or safety relief valve discharge pipe, it shall 
be located close to the valve outlet downstream of the 
union. 

(2) The discharge from safety or safety relief valves 
shall be so arranged as to minimize the danger of scalding 
attendants. The safety or safety relief valve discharge shall 
be piped away from the boiler to a safe point of discharge, 
and there shall be provisions made for properly draining 
the piping (see Fig. 3.201). The size and arrangement of 
discharge piping shall be independent of other discharge 
piping and such that any pressure that may exist or develop 
will not reduce the relieving capacity of the relieving 
devices below that required to protect the boiler. 

J. Temperature and Pressure Safety Relief Valves. (10) 
Hot water heating or supply boilers limited to a water 
temperature of 210°F (99°C) may have one or more offi- 
cially rated temperature and pressure safety relief valves 



27 



2011a SECTION VI 



(10) 



FIG. 3,201 SAFETY RELIEF VALVE DISCHARGE PIPE 




iJ 



End of pipe to 
prevent threading 



Air gap at point of 
safe discharge 



28 



2011a SECTION VI 



installed. The requirements of 3.20B through 3.201 shall 
be met, except as follows: 

(1) A Y-type fitting shall not be used. 

(2) If additional valves are used, they shall be temper- 
ature and pressure safety relief valves. 

(3) When the temperature and pressure safety relief 
valve is mounted directly on the boiler with no more than 
4 in. maximum interconnecting piping, the valve may be 
installed in the horizontal position with the outlet pointed 
down. 

K. Valve Replacement. Safety valves and safety relief 
valves requiring repairs shall be replaced with a new valve 
or repaired by the Manufacturer. 



3.21 STEAM GAGES 

A. Each steam boiler shall have a steam gage or a com- 
pound steam gage connected to its steam space or to its water 
column or to its steam connection. The gage or piping to the 
gage shall contain a siphon or equivalent device that will 
develop and maintain a water seal that will prevent steam 
from entering the gage tube. The piping shall be so arranged 
that the gage cannot be shut off from the boiler except by a 
cock placed in the pipe at the gage and provided with a tee- 
or lever-handle arranged to be parallel to the pipe in which 
it is located when the cock is open. The gage connection 
boiler tapping, external siphon, or piping to the boiler shall 
be not less than NPS % (DN 8). Where steel or wrought iron 
pipe or tubing is used, the boiler connection and external 
syphon shall be not less than NPS \ (DN 15). Ferrous and 
nonferrous tubing having inside diameters at least equal to 
that of nominal pipe sizes listed above may be substituted 
for pipe. 

B. The scale on the dial of a steam boiler gage shall be 
graduated to not less than 30 psi (200 kPa) nor more than 
60 psi (400 kPa). The travel of the pointer from psi to 30 psi 
(0 kPa to 200 kPa) pressure shall be at least 3 in. (75 mm). 



3.22 WATER GAGE GLASSES 

A. Each steam boiler shall have one or more water gage 
glasses attached to the water column or boiler by means of 
valved fittings not less than NPS \ (DN 15), with the lower 
fitting provided with a drain valve of a type having an 
unrestricted drain opening not less than \ in. (6 mm) in diam- 
eter to facilitate cleaning. Gage glass replacement shall be 
possible with the boiler under pressure. Water glass fittings 
may be attached directly to a boiler. 

Boilers having an internal vertical height of less than 1 in. 
(254 mm) may be equipped with a water level indicator of 
the glass bull's-eye type provided the indicator is of suffi- 
cient size to show the water at both normal operating and 
low- water cutoff levels. 



NOTE: Transparent material other than glass may be used For the water 
gage provided that the material will remain transparent and has proved 
suitable for the pressure, temperature, and corrosive conditions expected 
in service. 

B. The lowest visible part of the water gage glass shall 
be at least 1 in. (25 mm) above the lowest permissible water 
level recommended by the boiler manufacturer. With the 
boiler operating at this lowest permissible water level, there 
shall be no danger of overheating any part of the boiler. 

C. In electric boilers of the submerged electrode type, 
the water gage glass shall be so located to indicate the water 
levels both at startup and under maximum steam load condi- 
tions as established by the Manufacturer. 

D. In electric boilers of the resistance heating element 
type, the lowest visible part of the water gage glass shall not 
be below the top of the electric resistance heating element. 
Each boiler of this type shall also be equipped with an auto- 
matic low-water electrical power cutoff so located as to auto- 
matically cut off the power supply to the heating elements 
before the surface of the water falls below the top of the 
electrical resistance heating elements. 

E. A water level indicator using an indirect sensing 
method may be used in lieu of an operating water gage glass; 
however, a water gage glass must be installed and operable 
but may be shut off by valving. The water level indicator 
may be attached to a water column or directly to the boiler 
by means of valved fittings not less than NPS % (DN 15). 
The device shall be provided with a drain valve of a type 
having an unrestricted drain opening not less than % in. 
(6 mm) in diameter to facilitate cleaning. Service and 
replacement of internal parts and/or housing shall be possi- 
ble with the boiler under pressure. 



3.23 WATER COLUMN AND WATER 

LEVEL CONTROL PIPES 

A. The mi nimum size of ferrous or nonferrous pipes con- 
necting a water column to a steam boiler shall be 1 in. 
(DN 25). No outlet connections, except for damper regula- 
tor, feedwater regulator, steam gages, or apparatus that does 
not permit the escape of any steam or water except for manu- 
ally operated blowdowns, shall be attached to a water col- 
umn or the piping connecting a water column to a boiler 
(see 3.30C for introduction of feedwater into a boiler). If the 
water column, gage glass, low-water fuel cutoff, or other 
water level control device is connected to the boiler by pipe 
and fittings, no shutoff valves of any type shall be placed in 
such pipe, and a cross or equivalent fitting to which a drain 
valve and piping may be attached shall be placed in the water 
piping connection at every right angle turn to facilitate clean- 
ing. The water column drain pipe and valve shall be not less 
thanNPS%(DN20). 



29 



2011a SECTION VI 



B. The steam connections to the water column of a hori- 
zontal firetube wrought boiler shall be taken from the top of 
the shell or the upper part of the head, and the water connec- 
tion shall be taken from a point not above the center line of 
the shell. For a cast iron boiler, the steam connection to the 
water column shall be taken from the top of an end section 
or the top of the steam header, and the water connection shall 
be made on an end section not less than 6 in, (150 mm) below 
the bottom connection to the water gage glass. 



3.24 



PRESSURE CONTROL 



Each automatically fired steam boiler shall be protected 
from overpressure by two pressure-operated controls. 

A. Each individual automatically fired steam boiler or 
the assembled modular steam boiler shall have a safety limit 
control that will cut off the fuel supply to prevent steam pres- 
sure from exceeding the 15 psi (100 kPa) maximum allow- 
able working pressure of the boiler. Each control shall be 
constructed to prevent a pressure setting above 15 psi 
(100 kPa). 

B. Each individual steam boiler shall have a control that 
will cut off the fuel supply when the pressure reaches an 
operating limit, that shall be less than the maximum allow- 
able pressure. 

C. Shutoff valves of any type shall not be placed in the 
steam pressure connection between the boiler and the con- 
trols described in 3. 24 A and B. These controls shall be pro- 
tected with a siphon or equivalent means of maintaining a 
water seal that will prevent steam from entering the control. 
The control connection boiler tapping, external siphon, or 
piping to the boiler shall not be less than NPS % (DN 8), but 
where steel or wrought iron pipe or tubing is used, they shall 
not be less than NPS \ (DN 15). The minimum size of a 
siphon shall be NPS % (DN 8) or % in. (10 mm) O.D. nonfer- 
rous tubing. 

D. ASME CSD- 1 requires that operation of the pressure 
control described in 3.24A shall cause a safety shutdown 
requiring manual reset. 



3.25 PRESSURE OR ALTITUDE GAGES 

A. Each hot water heating or hot water supply boiler shall 
have a pressure or altitude gage connected to it or its flow 
connection in such a manner that it cannot be shut off from 
the boiler except by a cock with a tee or lever handle, placed 
on the pipe near the gage. The handle of the cock shall be 
parallel to the pipe in which it is located when the cock is 
open. 

B. The scale on the dial of the pressure or altitude gage 
shall be graduated approximately to not less than \\ nor 



more than 3/ 2 times the pressure at which the safety relief 
valve is set. 

C. Piping or tubing for pressure- or altitude-gage con- 
nections shall be of nonferrous metal when smaller than 
NPS 1 (DN 25). 



3.26 



THERMOMETERS 



Each hot water heating or hot water supply boiler shall 
have a thermometer so located and connected that it shall be 
easily readable. The thermometer shall be so located that it 
shall at all times indicate the temperature of the water in the 
boiler at or near the outlet. 



3.27 



TEMPERATURE CONTROL 



Each automatically fired hot water heating or hot water 
supply boiler shall be protected from over-temperature by 
two temperature-operated controls. The space thermostat 
used for comfort control is not considered one of the required 
temperature-operated controls. 

A. Each individual automatically fired hot water heating 
or hot water supply boiler shall have a high temperature limit 
control that will cut off the fuel supply to prevent water tem- 
perature from exceeding its marked maximum water tem- 
perature at the boiler outlet. This control shall be constructed 
to prevent a temperature setting above the maximum. 

B. Each individual hot water heating or hot water supply 
boiler shall have a control that will cut off the fuel supply 
when the system water temperature reaches a preset 
operating limit, that shall be less than the maximum water 
temperature. 

C. ASME CSD- 1 requires that operation of the tempera- 
ture control described in 3 ,27 A shall cause a safety shutdown 
requiring manual reset. 



3.28 AUTOMATIC LOW- WATER FUEL 

CUTOFF AND/OR WATER FEEDING 
DEVICE (STEAM) 

A. Each automatically fired steam or vapor-system 
boiler shall have an automatic low-water fuel cutoff so 
located as to automatically cut off the fuel supply before the 
surface of the water falls below the lowest visible part of the 
water gage glass. If a water feeding device is installed, it 
shall be so constructed that the water inlet valve cannot feed 
water into the boiler through the float chamber and so located 
as to supply requisite feedwater. 

B. Such a fuel cutoff or water feeding device may be 
attached directly to a boiler. A fuel cutoff or water feeding 
device may also be installed in the tapped openings available 



30 



2011a SECTION VI 



for attaching a water glass directly to a boiler, provided the 
connections are made to the boiler with nonferrous tees or 
Ys not less than NPS \ (DN 15) between the boiler and the 
water glass so that the water glass is attached directly and as 
close as possible to the boiler; the run of the tee or Y shall 
take the water glass fittings, and the side outlet or branch of 
the tee or Y shall take the fuel cutoff or water feeding device. 
The ends of all nipples shall be reamed to full-size diameter. 

C. Fuel cutoffs and water feeding devices embodying a 
separate chamber shall have a vertical drain pipe and a blow- 
off valve not less than NPS % (DN 20), located at the lowest 
point in the water equalizing pipe connections so that the 
chamber and the equalizing pipe can be flushed and the 
device tested. 

D. ASME CSD-1 requires two low-water cutoffs on 
steam boilers. Operation of the lower one shall 

(1) with pumped returns, cause a safety shutdown requir- 
ing manual reset 

(2) with gravity returns, sound an audible alarm. 



3.29 LOW- WATER FUEL CUTOFF (HOT 

WATER) 

A. Each automatically fired hot water heating boiler with 
heat input greater than 400,000 Btu/h (1 17 kW) shall have 
an automatic low-water fuel cutoff that has been designed 
for hot water service, and it shall be so located as to automati- 
cally cut off the fuel supply when the surface of the water 
falls to the level established in B below (see Fig. 3.30-3). 

B. As there is no normal waterline to be maintained in a 
hot water heating boiler, any location of the low-water fuel 
cutoff above the lowest safe permissible water level estab- 
lished by the boiler manufacturer is satisfactory. 

C. A coil-type boiler or a watertube boiler with heat input 
greater than 400,000 Btu /h ( 1 1 7 kW) requiring forced circu- 
lation to prevent overheating of the coils or tubes shall have 
a flow-sensing device installed in the outlet piping in lieu of 
the low-water fuel cutoff required in A above to automati- 
cally cut off the fuel supply when the circulating flow is 
interrupted. 

D. A means should be provided for testing the operation 
of the external low-water fuel cutoff without resorting to 
draining the entire system. Such means should not render 
the device inoperable except as described as follows. If the 
means temporarily isolates the device from the boiler during 
this testing, it shall automatically return to its normal posi- 
tion. The connection may be so arranged that the device can- 
not be shut off from the boiler except by a cock placed at the 
device and provided with a tee- or level-handle arranged to 
be parallel to the pipe in which it is located when the cock 
is open. 



E. ASME CSD-1 requires that operation of the low- 
water cutoff on a hot water boiler shall cause a safety shut- 
down requiring manual reset. 



3.30 



PIPING 



Figures 3.30-1 through 3.30-4B show recommended pip- 
ing arrangements for single boilers in battery. Guidance for 
the design of piping systems may be found in ASME B3 1 .9, 
Building Service Piping. 

A. Provisions for Expansion and Contraction. Provi- 
sions shall be made for the expansion and contraction of 
steam and hot water mains connected to boilers by providing 
substantial anchorage at suitable points and by providing 
swing joints (see 1 .05 for definition) when boilers are 
installed in batteries, so there will be no undue strain trans- 
mitted to the boilers. See Figs. 3.30-1 through 3.30-4B for 
typical schematic arrangements of piping incorporating 
strain absorbing joints for steam and hot water heating 
boilers. 

B. Return Pipe Connections 

(1) The return pipe connections of each boiler supply- 
ing a gravity return steam heating system shall be so 
arranged as to form a loop substantially as shown in 
Figs. 3.30-3 and 3.30-4B so that the water in each boiler 
cannot be forced out below the safe water level. 

(2) For hand-fired boilers with a normal grate line, the 
recommended pipe sizes detailed as "A" in Fig. 3.30-3 are 
NPS 1 V 2 (DN 40) for 4 ft 2 (0.4 m 2 ) or less firebox area at the 
normal grate line, NPS 2 l / 2 (DN 65) for areas more than 4 ft 2 
(0.4 m 2 ) up to 15 ft 2 (1 .4 m 2 ), and NPS 4 (DN 100) for 15 ft 2 
(1.4 m 2 ) or more. 

(3) For automatically fired boilers that do not have a 
normal grate line, the recommended pipe sizes detailed as 
"A" in Fig. 3.30-3 are NPS 1 \ (DN 40) for boilers with mini- 
mum safety valve relieving capacity 250 lb/h (1 13 kg/h) or 
less; NPS 2 x / 2 (DN 65) for boilers with minimum safety valve 
relieving capacity from 251 lb/h to 2,000 lb/h (900 kg/h), 
inclusive; and NPS 4 (DN 100) for boilers with more than 
2,000 lb/h (900 kg/h) minimum safety valve relieving 
capacity. 

(4) Provision shall be made for cleaning the interior of 
the return piping at or close to the boiler. Washout openings 
may be used for return pipe connections and the washout 
plug placed in a tee or a cross so that the plug is directly 
opposite and as close as possible to the opening in the boiler. 

C. Feed water and Makeup Water Connections 

(1) Steam Boilers. Feedwater or water treatment shall 
be introduced into a boiler through the return piping system 
or may be introduced through an independent connection. 
The water flow from the independent connection shall not 
discharge directly against parts of the boiler exposed to 



31 



2011a SECTION VI 



FIG. 3.30-1 SINGLE HOT WATER HEATING BOILER - ACCEPTABLE PIPING INSTALLATION 



Makeup water 



Air vent Q 




Makeup water 



Pressure 
reducing 
valve 



Preferred location of 
circulating pump 



Stop valve 




Expansion tank 



ASME safety 
relief valve 




High limit h] 
control « 




Heating 
supply 



External low water 
/ fuel cutoff [Note(l)] 



Temperature 
pressure gage 



Maximum temperature 
limit control 



Safety relief valve 
discharge piping 
{with union) 



Drain valve 



Alternate arrangement 
with diaphragm 
expansion tank 



Heating 
return 



GENERAL NOTE: Plumbing codes may require the installation of a reduced pressure principle backflow preventer on a boiler when the makeup 
water source is from a potable water supply. 

NOTE: 

(1) Recommended control. See 3.29. Acceptable shutoff valves or cocks in the connecting piping may be installed for convenience of control 
testing and/or service. 



32 



2011a SECTION VI 



FIG. 3.30-2 HOT WATER HEATING BOILERS IN BATTERY - ACCEPTABLE PIPING INSTALLATION 



External 
low- water 
fuel cutoff 
(Noted)! 



Heating 
supply 



Stop valve 



Expansion tank 



Temperature 
pressure gage 




Makeup water 



Maximum temperature 
limit control 



Alternate makeup nr- 1 r 't;^ U[ e Alternate expansion 

water arrangement reducing *._„• tank with diaphragm 

(required on each boiler) 

GENERAL NOTE: Plumbing codes may require the installation of a reduced pressure principle backflow preventer on a boiler when the makeup 
water source is from a potable water supply. 

NOTES: 

(1) Recommended control. See 3.29. Acceptable shutoff valves or cocks in the connecting piping may be installed for convenience of control 
testing and/or service. 

(2) The common return header stop valves may be located on either side of the check valves. 



33 



FIG. 3.30-3 SINGLE STEAM BOILERS - ACCEPTABLE PIPING INSTALLATION 




Stop y~alv& \S"^"^ 



ftimped hhn 



'■- t y^P^^ 



.valve ^ 



^ 



malve 



varve, *ra?n 



< 



heat rg j ^u?>i 



Gravity Rat urn 



W 

n 

3 



GENERAL NOTE: Plumbing codes may require the installation of a reduced pressure principle backflow preventer on a boiler when the makeup water source is from a potable water supply. 
NOTES: 

(1) Return loop connection was designed to eliminate the necessity of check valves on gravity return systems, but in some localities a check valve is a legal requirement. 

(2) When pump discharge piping exceeds 25 ft (7.6 m), install swing check valves at pump discharge. 

(3) If pump discharge is looped above normal boiler waterline, install a spring-loaded check valve at return header and at pump discharge. 

(4) Where supply pressures are adequate/ makeup water may be introduced directly to a boiler through an independent connection. 

(5) Recommended for 1 in. (25 mm) and larger safety valve discharge. 



FIG. 3.30-4A STEAM BOILERS IN BATTERY - PUMPED RETURN - ACCEPTABLE PIPING INSTALLATION 



Steam main 




Heating 
supply 



Pump control 
and gage glass 



V3 

s 

< 



Single Return 
Shown 



Blowoff 
valve, drain 

From receiver 
tank 

GENERAL NOTES: 

(a) Return connections shown for a multiple boiler installation may not always ensure that the system will operate properly. To maintain proper water levels in multiple boiler installations/ it 
may be necessary to install supplementary controls or suitable devices. 

(b) Plumbing codes may require the installation of a reduced pressure principle backflow preventer on a boiler when the makeup water source is from a potable water supply. 

NOTE: 

(1) Recommended for 1 in. (25 mm) and larger safety valve discharge. 



FIG. 3.30-4B STEAM BOILERS IN BATTERY - GRAVITY RETURN - ACCEPTABLE PIPING INSTALLATION 



Heating 
supply 




Single Return 
Shown 



Heating return 



GENERAL NOTES: 

(a) Return connections shown for a multiple boiler installation may not always ensure that the system will operate properly. To maintain proper water levels in multiple boiler installations/ it 
may be necessary to install supplementary controls or suitable devices. 

(b) Plumbing codes may require the installation of a reduced pressure principle backflow preventer on a boiler when the makeup water source is from a potable water supply. 
NOTE: 

(1) Recommended for l in. (25 mm) and larger safety valve discharge. 



n 

H 

3 

2! 



2011a SECTION VI 



direct radiant heat from the fire. Feedwater or water treat- 
ment shall not be introduced through openings or connec- 
tions provided for inspection or cleaning, safety valve, 
blowoff, water column, water gage glass, or pressure gage. 
The pipe shall be provided with a check valve or a backflow 
preventer containing a check valve near the boiler and a stop 
valve or cock between the check valve and the boiler or 
between the check valve and the return pipe system. 

(2) Hot Water Boilers. Makeup water may be intro- 
duced into a boiler through the piping system or through an 
independent connection. The water flow from the indepen- 
dent connection shall not discharge directly against parts of 
the boiler exposed to direct radiant heat from the fire. 
Makeup water shall not be introduced through openings or 
connections provided exclusively for inspection or cleaning, 
safety relief valve, pressure gage, or temperature gage. The 
makeup water pipe shall be provided with a check valve or 
a backflow preventer containing a check valve near the boiler 
and a stop valve or cock between the check valve and the 
boiler or between the check valve and the return piping 
system. 

(3) Some jurisdictions may require installation of a 
backflow preventer in the feedwater connection. 

3.31 PROVISIONS FOR THERMAL 

EXPANSION IN HOT WATER 
SYSTEMS 

All hot water heating systems incorporating hot water 
tanks or fluid relief columns shall be so installed as to prevent 
freezing under normal operating conditions. 

A. Systems With Open Expansion Tank. If the system 
is equipped with an open expansion tank, an indoor overflow 
from the upper portion of the expansion tank shall be pro- 
vided in addition to an open vent, the indoor overflow to be 
carried within the building to a suitable plumbing fixture or 
the basement. 

B. Closed-Type Systems. If the system is of the closed 
type, an airtight tank or other suitable air cushion shall be 
installed that will be consistent with the volume and capacity 
of the system, and it shall be suitably designed for a hydro- 
static test pressure of 2 ] / 2 times the allowable working pres- 
sure of the system. Expansion tanks for systems designed 
to operate above 30 psi (200 kPa) shall be constructed in 
accordance with Section VIII, Division 1 . Provisions shall 
be made for draining the tank without emptying the system, 
except for prepressurized tanks. 

C. Minimum Capacity of Closed-Type Tank, The 
minimum capacity of the closed-type expansion tank may 
be determined from Table 3.31C-1 and Table 3.31C-2 or 
from the following formula where the necessary information 
is available: 

V, = [(0.00041T- 0.0466) V,] /[(?«/ P f ) - (PJP a )] 

V; = [(0.0007387- 0.03348)VJ/[(P fl / P f ) - (PJP )] 



TABLE 3.31C-1 

EXPANSION TANK CAPACITIES FOR GRAVITY 

HOT WATER SYSTEMS 



Installed Equivalent 

Direct Radiation, ft 2 (m 2 ) 

[Note (1)] 



Tank Capacity/ 
gal (m 3 ) 



Up 


to 350 (32.5) 


Up 


to 450 (41.8) 


Up 


to 650 (68.4) 


Up 


to 900 (83.6) 


Up 


to 1,100 (102.2) 


Up 


to 1,400 (130.0) 


Up 


to 1,600 (148.6) 


Up 


to 1,800 (167.2) 


Up 


to 2,000 (185.8) 


Up 


to 2,400 (222.9) 



18 

21 

24 

30 

35 

40 

2-30 

2-30 

2-35 

2-40 



(0.07) 

(0.08) 

(0.09) 

(0.11) 

(0.13) 

(0.15) 

(2-0.11) 

(2-0.11) 

(2-0.13) 

(2-0.15) 



NOTE: 

(1) For systems with more than 2,400 ft 2 (223 m 2 ) of installed equiva- 
lent direct water radiation, the required capacity of the cushion 
tank shall be increased on the basis of 1 gal [3.8 L (0.0038 m 3 )] 
tank capacity/33 ft 2 (3.1 m 2 ) of additional equivalent direct 
radiation. 



TABLE 3.31C-2 

EXPANSION TANK CAPACITIES FOR FORCED 

HOT WATER SYSTEMS 

Based on average operating water temperature 

195°F (91°C), fill pressure 12 psig (83 kPa gage), and 

maximum operating pressure 30 psig (200 kPa gage) 



System Volume, 

gal (m 3 ) 

[Note (1)] 



Tank Capacities, gal (m 3 ) 



Prepressurized 
Diaphragm Type 



Nonprepressurized 
Type 



100 (0.38) 
200 (0.76) 
300 (1.14) 
400 (1.51) 
500 (1.89) 
1,000 (3.79) 
2,000 (7.57) 



9 (0.034) 
17 (0.064) 
25 (0.095) 
33 (0.125) 
42 (0.159) 
83 (0.314) 
165 (0.625) 



15 (0.057) 
30 (0.114) 
45 (0.170) 
60 (0.227) 
75 (0.284) 
150 (0.568) 
300 (1.136) 



NOTE: 

(1) System volume includes volume of water in boiler, radiation, and 
piping, not including the expansion tank. Expansion tank capacities 
are based on an acceptance factor of 0.4027 for prepressurized 
types and 0.222 for nonprepressurized types. A procedure for esti- 
mating system volume and determining expansion tank sizes for 
other design conditions may be found in the Systems and 
Applications Volume of the ASHRAE Handbook. 



37 



2011a SECTION VI 



where 



Vt = minimum volume of tanks 
y s — vo | ume f system, not including tanks 
P = average operating temperature 
Pa — atmospheric pressure 
Pf = fill pressure 
Po ~ maximum operating pressure 



332 



STOP VALVES 



A. For Single Steam Boilers, A stop valve shall be 
installed in the supply pipe and return pipe connections to 
permit testing the safety valve without pressurizing the 
system. 



TABLE 3.33 

SIZE OF BOTTOM BL0W0FF PIPING, 

VALVES, AND COCKS 



Minimum Required 


Blowoff Piping, 


Safety Valve Capacity, 


Valves, and Cocks 


lb (kg) of Steam/hr 


Min. Size, NPS 


[Note (1)] 


<DN) 


Up to 500 (226) 


% (20) 


501 to 1,250 (227 to 567) 


1 (25) 


1,251 to 2,500 (567 to 1 134) 


lV 4 (32) 


2,501 to 6,000 (1 135 to 2 721) 


lV 2 (40) 


6,001 (2 722) and larger 


2 (50) 



NOTE: 

(1) To determine the discharge capacity of safety relief valves in terms 
of Btu, the relieving capacity in lb of steam/hr is multiplied by 1,000. 



E. Identification of Stop Valves by Tags. When stop 
valves are used, they shall be properly designated substan- 
tially as follows by tags of metal or other durable material 
fastened to them: 



B. For Single Hot Water Heating Boilers 

(1) Stop valves shall be located at an accessible point 
in the supply and return pipe connections as near the boiler 
nozzle as is convenient and practicable, of a single hot water 
heating boiler installation to permit draining the boiler with- 
out emptying the system, and to permit testing the safety 
relief valve without pressurizing the system. 

C. For Multiple Boiler Installations. A stop valve shall 
be used in each supply and return pipe connection of two or 
more boilers connected to a common system. See 
Figs. 3.30-2, 3.30-4A, and 3.30-4B. 

D. Type of Stop Valve(s) 

(1) All valves or cocks may be ferrous or nonferrous, 

(2) The minimum pressure rating of all valves or cocks 
shall be at least equal to the pressure stamped upon the boiler, 
and the temperature rating of such valves or cocks, including 
all internal components, shall be not less than 250°F 
(120°C). 

(3) Valves or cocks shall be flanged, threaded, or have 
ends suitable for welding or brazing. 

(4) All valves or cocks with stems or spindles shall 
have adjustable pressure-type packing glands or self- 
adjusting seals suitable for the intended service. All plug- 
type cocks shall be equipped with a guard or gland suitable 
for the intended service. All \ turn valve operating mecha- 
nisms shall have a tee or lever handle arranged to be parallel 
to the pipe in which it is located when the cock is open. 

(5) All valves or cocks shall have tight closure when 
under boiler hydrostatic test pressure. 



Supply Valve - Number ( ) 

Do Not Close Without Also 

Closing Return Valve - 

Number ( ) 

Return Valve - Number ( ) 

Do Not Close Without Also 

Closing Supply Valve - 

Number ( ) 



3.33 BOTTOM BLOWOFF AND DRAIN 
VALVES 

A. Bottom Blowoff Valve, Each steam boiler shall have 
a bottom blowoff connection fitted with a valve or cock con- 
nected to the lowest water space practicable with a minimum 
size as shown in Table 3.33. The discharge piping shall be 
full size to the point of discharge. 2 

B. Drain Valve. Each steam or hot water boiler shall 
have one or more drain connections fitted with valves or 
cocks connecting to the lowest water containing spaces. The 
minimum size of the drain piping, valves, and cocks shall 
be NPS % (DN 20). The discharge piping shall be full size 
to the point of discharge. When the blowoff connection is 
located at the lowest water containing space, a separate drain 
connection is not required. 

C. Minimum Pressure Rating. The minimum pressure 
rating of valves and cocks used for blowoff or drain purposes 
shall be at least equal to the pressure stamped on the boiler 



" Boilers having a capacity of 25 gal (91 L) or less are exempt from 
the requirements in 3. 3 3 A, except that they must have a NPS ~4 (DN 20) 
minimum drain valve. 



38 



2011a SECTION VI 



but in no case less than 30 psi (200 kPa). The temperature 
rating of such valves and cocks shall not be less than 250°F 
(120°C). 



3.34 OIL HEATERS 

A. A heater for oil or other liquid harmful to boiler opera- 
tion shall not be installed directly in the steam or water space 
within a boiler. 

B. Where an external type heater for such service is used, 
means shall be provided to prevent the introduction into the 
boiler of oil or other liquid harmful to boiler operation. 

3.35 SHUTDOWN SWITCHES AND 
CIRCUIT BREAKERS 

A manually operated remote heating plant shutdown 
switch or circuit breaker should be located just outside the 
boiler room door and marked for easy identification. Consid- 
eration should also be given to the type and location of the 
switch to safeguard against tampering. If the boiler room 
door is on the building exterior, the switch should be located 
just inside the door. If there is more than one door to the 
boiler room, there should be a switch located at each door. 

(1) For atmospheric-gas burners, and oil burners where 
the fan is on a common shaft with the oil pump, the complete 
burner and controls should be shut off. 

(2) For power burners with detached auxiliaries, only the 
fuel input supply to the firebox need be shut off. 

3.36 MODULAR BOILERS 
A. Individual Modules 

(1) The individual modules shall comply with all the 
requirements of Part HG of Section IV. The individual mod- 
ules shall be limited to a maximum input of 400,000 Btuh 
(gas)[115kW(gas)],3gal/hr(oil)[llL/hr(oil)],orll5kW 
(electricity). 

(2) Each module of a modular steam heating boiler 
shall be equipped with 

(a) steam gage, see 3.21 

(b) water gage glass, see 3.22 

(c) operating limit control, see 3.24B 

(d) low- water cutoff, see 3.28 



(e) safety valve, see 3. 20 A 

(f) bottom blowoff valve, see 3.33A 

(g) drain valve, see 3.33B 

(3) Each module of a hot water heating boiler shall be 
equipped with 

(a) pressure /altitude gage, see 3.25 

(b) thermometer, see 3.26 

(c) operating temperature control, see 3.27B 

(d) safety relief valve, see 3.20B 

(e) drain valve, see 3.33B 

B. Assembled Modular Boilers 

(1) The individual modules shall be manifolded 
together at the job-site without any intervening valves. The 
header or manifold piping is field piping and is exempt from 
Section IV requirements. 

(2) The assembled modular steam heating boiler shall 
also be equipped with 

(a) feedwater connection, see 3.30C 

(b) return pipe connection, see 3. 3 0B 

(c) safety limit control, see 3. 24 A 

(3) The assembled modular hot water heating boiler 
shall also be equipped with 

(a) makeup water connection, see 3.30C 

(b) provision for thermal expansion, see 3.3 1 

(c) stop valves, see 3.32B 

(d) high temperature limit control, see 3. 27 A 

(e) low- water fuel cutoff, see 3.29 



3.37 



VACUUM BOILERS 



Vacuum boilers shall comply with all the requirements of 
Mandatory Appendix 5 of Section IV. 



3.38 STORAGE TANKS FOR HOT WATER 

SUPPLY SYSTEMS 

If a system is to utilize a storage tank that exceeds a nomi- 
nal water-containing capacity of 120 gal (454 L), the tank 
shall be constructed in accordance with the rules of Part 
HLW; Section VIII, Division 1 ; or Section X. For tanks con- 
structed to Section X, the maximum allowable temperature 
marked on the tank shall equal or exceed the maximum water 
temperature marked on the boiler. 



39 



2011a SECTION VI 



4. FUELS 



The principal fuels used are gas, oil, coal, wood products, 
and electricity as a source of heat. 



4.01 GAS — NATURAL, 

MANUFACTURED, MIXED 

Gas used for fuel may be in the form of natural, manufac- 
tured, mixed, or liquefied petroleum gas. Natural, manufac- 
tured, and mixed gases are normally distributed through 
underground piping. They require no storage facilities. 

Heating values of these gases in Btu per cubic feet 
(MJ/m 3 ) are: 



Low 



High 



Natural gas 


950 (35.4) 


1150(42.9) 


Manufactured gas 


350 (13.0) 


600 (22.4) 


Mixed gas 


600 (22.4) 


800 (29.8) 



4.02 



LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS (LPG) 



Liquefied petroleum gas is normally stored in tanks at 
high pressure so that it will be in a liquid state. Storage 
may be either above or below ground, with storage and 
handling requirements in accordance with NFPA Pamphlet 
#58 and local regulations. The liquefied fuel is reduced in 
pressure and its state is changed to a gas at the required 
pressure for the burner. Propane or butane gas has a heating 
value of 2,500 Btu/ft 3 to 3,300 Btu /ft 3 (93.2 MJ/m 3 to 
123.0 MJ/m 3 ). 

Modification of the fuel burning equipment is necessary 
when changing from liquefied petroleum gas to other gases 
or from other gases to liquefied petroleum gas. 



4.03 



FUEL OILS 



Fuel oils are graded in accordance with specifications 
of the American Society for Testing and Materials. Oils 
are classified by their viscosities. Other characteristics of 
fuel oils that determine their grade, classification, and suit- 
ability for given uses are the flash point, pour point, water 
and sediment content, sulphur content, ash, and distillation 
characteristics. Fuel oils are prepared for combustion in 
most low-pressure boiler burners by atomization (spray- 
ing). The types of atomization commonly used are: high- 
pressure mechanical atomization, low-pressure mechanical 



atomization, centrifugal atomization (rotary cup), com- 
pressed air atomization, and steam atomization. 

A. Grade Number 1. A light viscosity distillate oil 
intended for vaporizing pot type burners. The heating value 
is approximately 135,000 Btu /gal (37 700 MJ/m 3 ). 

B. Grade Number 2. A distillate oil used for general 
purpose heating. The heating value is approximately 
138,000 Btu/gal (38 500 MJ/m 3 ). 

Co Grade Number 4. An oil heavier than Number 2 
but not heavy enough to require preheating facilities. 
Because the oil is no longer available in many locations 
as a straight run distillate, but is a mix of Number 2 and 
heavier oils, it may be necessary in northern climates to 
provide tank heaters or small recirculating preheaters to 
insure delivery of the blended fuel to the burner. If the 
fuel is not blended properly, the Number 2 oil and the 
heavier oil may separate in time. Many dealers blend the 
two grades of oil in the tank truck while delivering to 
the location. This may result in physical separation of the 
two grades if they stand in the tank for any length of 
time. The heating value is approximately 147,000 Btu/gal 
(41 000 MJ/m 3 ). 

D. Grade Number 5. This grade has been divided into 
hot Number 5 and cold Number 5. The "hot" grade requires 
preheating and the "cold" may be burned as is from the 
tank, but because of the increased demand for distillate 
products, the residual oils may be lower in quality and 
may require preheating for good results. Sometimes Grade 
Number 5 is a mix of Number 2 and Number 6. 

The usual heating value is approximately 152,000 
Btu/gal (42 400 MJ/m 3 ). 

E. Grade Number 6. A residual type oil for use in 
burners equipped with recirculating preheaters. Number 6 
fuel oil is sometimes referred to as Bunker C. The usual 
heating value is approximately 153,000 Btu/gal 
(42 700 MJ/m 3 ). 

F. Preheating Requirements. The correct temperature 
range must be used for each grade of preheated oil. 
Improper preheating may cause poor combustion, smoke, 
and high fuel consumption. The oil delivered to the burner 
must be preheated to the temperature recommended by the 
burner manufacturer for the grade of fuel used. 



40 



2011a SECTION VI 



4.04 



COAL 



Although automatic equipment for burning coal is not 
in common use, a brief treatment of coal is considered to 
be in order. 

A. Anthracite Coal. Anthracite coal is dense, stonelike 
in structure, and shiny black in color. Because of its hard- 
ness, it can be handled with little breakage. When ignited, 
it burns freely with a short, relatively smokeless flame and 
does not coke. It has very little volatile matter and is 
commonly referred to as hard coal Sernianthracite is not 
so hard as anthracite and is higher in volatile matter. It is 
dark gray in color and of granular structure. Sernianthracite 
swells considerably in size when burning, but it does not 
coke. Heating value of anthracite and sernianthracite coals, 
as received, is 12,000 Btu/lb to 13,000 Btu/lb (27.9 MJ/kg 
to 30.2 MJ/kg). 

B. Bituminous Coal. This classification covers a wide 
range of coals, from the high grades found in the eastern 
part of the United States to the lower grades of the western 
part. Bituminous coal, commonly called soft coal, is the 
most extensively used of all coals. The various types of 



soft coal differ in composition, properties, and burning 
characteristics. Some are firm in structure and present no 
handling problem, while others tend to break when han- 
dled. Bituminous coals ignite rather easily, and burn 
readily, usually with a long flame. Medium volatile and 
high volatile coals coke in the fire and smoke when improp- 
erly burned. The "as received" heating value of bituminous 
coals vary from approximately 10,500 Btu/lb to 14,500 
Btu/lb (24.4 MJ/kg to 33.7 MJ/kg). 



4.05 



ELECTRICITY 



Although electricity is in itself not a fuel, it is used as 
a source of heat for heating boilers. The two general meth- 
ods of application are electrodes and immersed direct resist- 
ance elements. When electrodes are used, the boiler water 
serves as the heating element by offering resistance to the 
passage of current between the immersed electrodes. Direct 
resistance elements create heat by the resistance offered 
to the passage of electric current through the immersed 
element. 



41 



2011a SECTION VI 



5. FUEL BURNING EQUIPMENT 
AND FUEL BURNING CONTROLS 



5,01 



GAS BURNING EQUIPMENT 



Gas burners fall into two general classes: atmospheric 
and power type. 

A. Atmospheric Gas Burners. Atmospheric burners 
depend upon natural draft for combustion air. There are 
several types of atmospheric burners, most of which fall 
into the general classifications of single or multiport type. 
See Fig. 5.01 A. 

B. Power Gas Burners. Power gas burners depend 
upon a blower to supply combustion air. They fall into 
two general classifications: natural draft and forced draft. 

(1 ) Natural draft burners operate with a furnace pres- 
sure slightly less than atmospheric. The proper draft condi- 
tion is maintained either by natural draft or an induced 
draft fan. 

(2) Forced draft burners are designed to operate with 
a furnace pressure higher than atmospheric. These burners 
are equipped with sufficient blower capacity to force prod- 
ucts of combustion through the boiler without the help of 
natural or induced draft. 

C. Combination Fuel Burners. Combination fuel 
burners are designed for burning more than one fuel with 
either manual or automatic switchover from one fuel to 
another. The combinations of fuel generally used are 
natural-liquefied petroleum gas or gas oil. See Fig. 5.0 1C. 



5.02 



OIL BURNING EQUIPMENT 



An oil burner mechanically mixes fuel oil and air for 
combustion under controlled conditions. Ignition is accom- 
plished by an electric spark, electric resistance wire, gas 
pilot flame, or oil pilot flame. 

FIG. 5.01A ATMOSPHERIC GAS BURNER 

Primary air supply VemyH tyba 




A. Pressure Atomizing Burners (Gun Type). Pressure 
atomizing (gun type) burners may be divided into two 
classes: high-pressure and low-pressure mechanical 
atomization. 

(1) The high-pressure mechanical atomizing type is 
characterized by an air tube, usually horizontal, with a 
pressurized oil supply centrally located in the tube and 
arranged so that a spray of atomized oil is introduced 
at approximately 100 psig (700 kPa) and mixed in the 
combustion chamber with the air stream emerging from 
the air tube (see Fig. 5.02A). The oil is supplied to the 
burner by a fuel delivery unit that serves as a pressure flow 
regulating device as well as a pumping device. Where 
electric ignition is employed, a high-voltage transformer 
is used to supply approximately 10,000 V to create an 
ignition arc across a pair of electrodes located above the 
nozzle. Where gas ignition is employed on a larger burner, 
a gas pilot is used. The firing rate is governed by the size 
of the nozzle used. Multiple nozzles are used on some of 
the larger burners and variable flow nozzles are used on 
others. 

A low fire start on a modulating burner that employs a 
variable flow nozzle is accomplished by supplying the oil 
at a reduced pressure. A low fire start on a multiple nozzle 
burner is accomplished by permitting oil flow to only one 
or two of the nozzles. 

(2) The low-pressure atomizing burner differs from 
the high-pressure type mainly by having means for supply- 
ing a mixture of oil and primary air to the burner nozzle. 
The air meeting the mixture in the furnace is "secondary 
air" that provides for complete combustion. The air pres- 
sure before mixing and the pressure of the air-oil mixture 
vary with different makes of burners, but are in the low 
range of 1 psig (7 kPa) to 15 psig (100 kPa) for air and 
2 psig (14 kPa) to 7 psig (48 kPa) for the mixture. Capacity 
of the burners is varied by making pump stroke or orifice 
changes on the oil pumps. 

B. Steam Atomizing Burners. Steam atomizing burn- 
ers utilize steam to atomize heavy grade fuel oil Steam is 
usually supplied by the boiler being operated. 

Co Air Atomizing Burners. In this type of burner, the 
compressed air or steam is used as the atomizing medium. 



42 



2011a SECTION VI 



FIG. 5.01C COMBINATION FUEL BURNERS 




FIG. 5.02A HIGH-PRESSURE ATOMIZING BURNER 



Oil pump :md ptt*Svi-^ 

reciylatinq valve ^^ 



Air adju silken 



~ Fan 




Nozzle 



Motor 



if ion transformer 



Adjustable 
pedestal 



43 



2011a SECTION VI 



FIG. 5.02D HORIZONTAL ROTARY CUP FUEL OIL BURNER 



Atomizing cup 
Angular-vane nozzle 
C Furnace hinge-plate mounting 



Fan 

Totally enclosed motor 
/Air-cooled motor jacket 



Primary air damper - 
Front bearing 

Stationary fuel tube -^ 

Rotating hollow main shaft 




Rear bearing 
Worm 
Worm gear 



An air compressor is usually provided as part of the 
burner although the air may be supplied from another 
source. 

D. Horizontal Rotary Cup Burner. The horizontal 
rotary cup burner (see Fig. 5.02D) utilizes the principle of 
centrifugal atomization. The oil is prepared for combustion 
by centrifugal force, spinning it off a cup rotating at high 
speed into an air stream, causing the oil to break up into 
a spray. This type can be used with all grades of fuel oil. 
Modulated firing can be provided on these burners. 



5.04 



CONTROLS 



5.03 



COAL BURNING EQUIPMENT 



Generally, stokers are used when burning coal. Stokers 
provide a mechanical means for feeding coal and supplying 
combustion air. They are built in several types, the most 
common of which are underfeed, spreader, and chain grate. 
See Figs. 5.03-1, 5.03-2, and 5.03-3. 



Automatically fired boilers may be equipped with 
operating, limit, safety, and programming controls that may 
be electrically or pneumatically operated. These controls 
perform the following functions. 

A. Operating Controls 

(1) Start, stop, and modulate the burner (if desired) 
in response to the systems demand, keeping steam pressure 
or hot water temperature at or below the limit control 
setting, 

(2) Maintain proper water level in steam boiler. 

(3) Maintain proper water pressure in hot water heat- 
ing boilers. 

B. Limit Controls 

(1) Stop burner when steam pressure or hot water 
temperature exceeds limit control setting. Steam boilers to 
operate at not more than 15 psi (100 kPa); hot water boilers 
to operate at temperatures not more than 250°F (120°C). 



44 



2011a SECTION VI 



FIG. 5.03-1 UNDERFEED SINGLE-RETORT STOKER 



Medial* ica? 
drive 



Blower- 



Coal 
distribution 
adjustment * 

Connectii 

rod 



Coal Coat 

hopper agitator 



Cos Weed 
adjustment 






Coal 
plunger ° 







FIG. 5.03-2 OVERTHROW RECIPROCATING PLATE-FEED TYPE SPREADER STOKER 





1 i 






1 1 


J\ 


1 1 










45 



2011a SECTION VI 



FIG. 5.03-3 CHAIN GRATE STOKER WITH SECTION SHOWING LINKS 




46 



2011a SECTION VI 



(2) Stop burner when water level drops below mini- 
mum safe level. 

(3) When required, stop burner in case of unusual 
conditions such as: 

(a) high stack temperature 

(b) high or low gas fuel pressure 

(c) high or low fuel oil temperature 

C. Safety Controls 

(1) Stop fuel flow in case of ignition failure. 

(2) Stop fuel flow in case of main flame interruption. 

(3) Stop fuel flow in case of mechanical draft failure. 

(4) Stop fuel flow in case of circuit failure. 

D. Programming Controls. Programming controls, 
when used, provide proper sequencing of the above con- 
trols to insure that all conditions, necessary for proper 
burner operation, are satisfied. Included in a programmed 
control are prepurge and postpurge cycles to remove accu- 
mulated gases. 

E. Spare Parts. Spare parts for controls, including elec- 
tronic components that require time for procurement, 
should be maintained in stock supply. 

F. Power for Electrically Operated Controls. All con- 
trols should be powered with a potential of 150 V or lower 



with one side grounded. A separate equipment ground 
conductor should be brought to the control panel frame 
with ground continuity assured to the fuel valve. All 
operating coils of control devices should be connected to 
the neutral side of the control circuit, and all control limit 
switches or contacts should be in the ungrounded (hot) 
side of the control circuit. If an isolating transformer is 
used, it should be bonded to the control panel frame. The 
equipment ground is not required when the isolating trans- 
former is used. Do not fuse control transformers above 
their rated current value because these devices are current 
limiting and an oversize fuse may not blow under short 
circuit conditions. 

G. Air for Pneumatically Operated Controls. Deter- 
mine that compressed air for pneumatically operated con- 
trols is clean, dry, and available at adequate pressure. 

H. Venting of Gas Controls. Venting of gas controls 
should conform to recognized installation standards. 

I. Reference to ASME CSD-1. ASME CSD-l contains 
specific requirements regarding the controls to be included 
in the fuel train, the timing of their operation, and the 
resulting action that must be achieved. 



47 



2011a SECTION VI 



6. BOILER ROOM FACILITIES 



6.01 GENERAL 

A. Scope. This Section covers the recommended proce- 
dures for the safe, economical operation and maintenance 
of automatically fired boilers. 

B. Intention. It is not intended that this Section serve 
as operating instructions for any specific heating plant. Due 
to the wide variety of types and makes of equipment used, 
this Section should be supplemented with Manufacturers' 
recommendations concerning maintenance and care and 
specific written operating instructions for each system. 

C. Inspection of New Boilers 

(1) Inspection for Acceptance. Before any new heat- 
ing plant (or boiler) is accepted for operation, a final (or 
acceptance) inspection should be completed and all items 
of exception corrected. In addition to determining that all 
equipment called for is furnished and installed in accor- 
dance with the plans and specifications, all controls should 
be tested by a person familiar with the control system. 

(2) Inspection for Operating Integrity, Before a boiler 
is put into operation for the first time, it should be inspected 
by an authorized boiler inspector as required by law. If 
such an inspection is neither required or available, the 
boiler should be inspected by a reputable boiler insurance 
company inspector. It is also recommended that subsequent 
inspections be made by an Authorized Inspector at intervals 
required by law or as recommended by the boiler insurance 
company. 



6.04 



VENTILATION 



6.02 



SAFETY 



Safety is very important to boiler operation and it should 
be foremost in the minds of those who are assigned to 
operation and maintenance of heating systems. Only prop- 
erly trained qualified personnel should work on or operate 
mechanical equipment, and adequate supervision should 
be provided. 



The boiler room must have an adequate air supply to 
permit clean, safe combustion and to minimize soot forma- 
tion. An unobstructed air opening should be provided. It 
may be sized on the basis of 1 in. 2 free area per 2,000 Btu/hr 
(0.586 kW) maximum fuel input of the combined burners 
located in the boiler room, or as specified in the National 
Fire Protection Association standards for oil and gas burn- 
ing installations for the particular job conditions. The boiler 
room air supply openings must be kept clear at all times. 



6.05 WATER AND DRAIN CONNECTIONS 

A. Water Connections. Proper and convenient water 
fill connections should be installed and provisions should 
be made to prevent boiler water from back-feeding into 
the service water supply. Provision should also be made 
in every boiler room for a convenient water supply that 
can be used to flush out the boiler and to clean the boiler 
room floor, 

B. Drain Connections. Proper and convenient drain 
connections should be provided for draining boilers. Unob- 
structed floor drains, properly located in the boiler room, 
will facilitate proper cleaning of the boiler room. Floor 
drains that are used infrequently should have water poured 
into them periodically to prevent the entrance of sewer 
gases and odors. If there is a possibility of freezing, an 
antifreeze mixture should be used in the drain traps. 
See 9.09. 



6.06 



FIRE PROTECTION 



Fire protection apparatus and fire prevention procedures 
for boiler room areas should conform to recommendations 

of NFPA. 



6.03 



LIGHTING 



The boiler room should be well lighted and it should 
have an emergency light source for use in case of power 
failure. If a flashlight is used for this purpose, it should be 
maintained in usable condition and it should be protected 
against removal from the boiler room. 



6*07 



HOUSEKEEPING 



Generally, a neat boiler room indicates a well-run plant. 
The boiler room should be kept free of all material and 
equipment not necessary to the operation of the heating 
system. Good housekeeping should be encouraged and 
procedures should include routine inspections to maintain 
the desired level of cleanliness. 



48 



2011a SECTION VI 



6.08 POSTING OF CERTIFICATES 

AND/OR LICENSES 

Some states and municipalities require licensing or certi- 
fication of personnel who operate or maintain heating 
equipment. Also, some authorities require posting of 
inspection certificates in the boiler room. The supervisor 
in charge of a given installation should make sure such 
requirements are met. 



6.09 RECORDKEEPING, LOGS, ETC. 

A. Drawings, Diagrams, Instruction Books, etc. All 
drawings, wiring diagrams, schematic arrangements, Man- 
ufacturers' descriptive literature and spare parts lists, and 
written operating instructions should be kept permanently 
in the boiler room or other suitable location so it will be 
available to those who operate and maintain the boiler. 
Where space permits, drawings and diagrams should be 
framed or sealed in plastic and hung adjacent to the related 
equipment. Other material should be assembled and 
enclosed in a suitable binder. When changes or additions 



are made, the data and drawings should be revised 
accordingly. 

B. Log Book. A permanent log book should be provided 
in each boiler room to record maintenance work, inspec- 
tions, certain tests, and other pertinent data. Brief details 
of repairs or other work done on a boiler plant (including 
time started, time completed, and signature of person in 
charge) should be recorded. Performance and results of 
tests, inspections, or other routines required by codes or 
laws, insurance company inspection reports, and initial 
acceptance test data should be recorded. 

C. Maintenance Schedules and Records. A suggested 
chart type log for scheduling and recording work performed 
on maintenance, testing, and inspection during a 1-year 
period is shown in Appendix I, Exhibit A (steam heating 
boilers) and Exhibit B (hot water heating boilers). The 
routine work normally performed on heating boilers is 
listed. As each portion of the work is completed, the person 
performing the work should enter the date and his initials 
in the appropriate space. 



49 



2011a SECTION VI 



7. OPERATION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR — 

STEAM BOILERS 



7.01 STARTING A NEW BOILER AND 

HEATING SYSTEM 
A. Cleaning and Filling a New Boiler 

(J) Inspection for Foreign Objects. Prior to starting 
a new boiler, an inspection should be made to insure that 
no foreign matter such as tools, equipment, rags, etc., is 
left in the boiler. 

(2) Checks Before Filling. Before putting water into 
a new boiler, make certain that the firing equipment is in 
operating condition to the extent that this is possible with- 
out actually lighting a fire in the empty boiler. This is 
necessary because raw water must be boiled [or heated to 
at least 1 80°F (82°C)] promptly after it is introduced into 
the boiler in order to drive off the dissolved gases that 
might otherwise corrode the boiler. 

(3) Operation to Clean the System. Fill the boiler to 
the proper wate.rli.ne and operate the boiler with steam in 
the entire system for a few days to bring the oil and dirt 
back from the system to the boiler. This is not necessary 
if the condensate is to be temporarily wasted to the sewer, 
in which case the system should be operated until the 
condensate runs clear. 

(4) Boiling Out The oils and greases that accumulate 
in a new boiler can usually be washed out by boiling as 
follows: 

(a) Fill the boiler to the normal waterline. 

(h) Remove plug from tapping on highest point on 
the boiler. 

If no other opening is available, the safety valve may 
be removed, in which case the valve must be handled with 
extreme care to avoid damaging it. 

(c) Add an appropriate boilout compound 1 through 
the prepared opening. 

(d) Replace the plug, or the safety valves. 

(e) Start the firing equipment and check operating, 
limit, and safety controls. Review Manufacturer's recom- 
mendations for boiler and burner startup. 

(f) Boil the water for at least 5 hr. 

(g) Stop the firing equipment. 



1 A qualified water treatment chemical specialist should be consulted 
for recommendations regarding appropriate chemical compounds and 
concentrations that are compatible with local environmental regulations 
governing disposal of the boilout solutions. 



(h) Drain the boiler in a manner and to a location 
that hot water can be discharged with safety. 

(i) Wash the boiler thoroughly, using a high- 
pressure water stream. 

(j) Fill the boiler to the normal waterline. 

(k) Add boiler water treatment compound as 
needed. 

(I) Boil the water or heat it to a temperature of 
180°F(82°C) promptly. 

(m) The boiler is now ready to be put into service 
or on standby. 

(5) Second Boilout for Stubborn Cases. In stubborn 
cases this simple boilout may not remove all the oil and 
grease, and another boilout using a surface blowoff may 
be necessary. For this type of cleaning proceed as follows: 

(a) Prepare the boiler for cleaning by running a 
temporary pipe line from the surface blowoff connection 
to an open drain or some other location where hot water 
may be discharged safely. If no such tapping is available, 
use the safety valve tapping, but run the pipe full size and 
as short a length as possible. Do not install a valve or 
any other obstruction in this line. Handle the safety valve 
carefully and protect it against damage while it is out of 
the boiler. 

(b) Fill the boiler until water reaches the top of the 
water gage glass. 

(c) Add a boilout compound. 1 

(d) Start the firing equipment and operate suffi- 
ciently to boil the water without producing steam pressure. 

(e) Boil for about 5 hr. 

(f) Open boiler feed pipe sufficiently to permit a 
steady trickle of water to run out the overflow pipe. 

(g) Continue this slow boiling and trickle of over- 
flow for several hours until the water coming from the 
overflow is clear. 

(h) Stop the firing equipment. 

(i) Drain the boiler in a manner and to a location 
that hot water can be discharged with safety. 

(j) Remove covers and plugs from all washout 
openings and wash the water side of the boiler thoroughly, 
using a high-pressure water stream. 

(k) Refill boiler till 1 in. (25 mm) of water shows 
in the gage glass. 



50 



2011a SECTION VI 



NOTE: If water in the gage glass does not appear to be clear, repeat 
steps (b) through (k) and boil out the boiler for a longer time. 

(I) Remove temporary piping. 

(m) Add a charge of boiler water treatment 
compound. 

(n) Close boiler. 

(o) Replace safety valve. 

(p) Boil or bring water temperature to at least 
180°F promptly. 

(q) The boiler is now ready to be put into service 
or standby. 



7.02 STARTING A BOILER AFTER LAYUP 

(SINGLE BOILER INSTALLATION) 

A. Procedure. When starting a boiler after layup, pro- 
ceed as follows: 

(1) Review Manufacturer's recommendations for 
startup of burner and boiler. 

(2) Set control switch in "Off position. 

(3) Make sure fresh air to boiler room is unobstructed. 

(4) Check availability of fuel. 

(5) Check water level in gage glass. Make sure gage 
glass valves are open. 

(6) Use try cocks, if provided, to double-check 
water level. 

(7) Vent combustion chamber to remove unburned 
gases. 

(8) Clean glass on fire scanner, if provided. 

(9) Set main steam shutoff valve in open position. 

( 10) Open cold water supply valve to water feeder if 
provided. Open suction and discharge valves on vacuum 
or condensate pumps and set electrical switches for desired 
operation. Vent boiler to remove air when necessary. 

(11 ) Check operating pressure setting of boiler. 

(12) Check manual reset, if provided, on low-water 
fuel cutoff and high-limit pressure control to determine if 
they are properly set. 

(13) Set manual fuel oil supply or manual gas valve 
in open position. 

(14) Place circuit breaker or fused disconnect switch 
in "On" position. 

(15) Place all boiler emergency switches in "On" 
position. 

(16) Place boiler control starting switch in "On" or 
"Start" position. Do not stand in front of boiler access or 
cleanout doors. This is a precautionary measure should a 
combustion explosion occur. 

(17) Bring pressure and temperature up slowly. Stand 
by boiler until it reaches the established cut-out point to 
make sure the operating control shuts off the burner. 



(18) During the pressure buildup period, walk around 
the boiler frequently to observe that all associated equip- 
ment and piping is functioning properly. Check for proper 
over-the-fire draft. 

( 19) Immediately after burner shuts off, inspect water 
column and open each try cock (if provided) individually 
to determine true water level. 

(20) Enter in log book: 

(a) date and time of startup 

(b) any irregularities observed and corrective 
action taken 

(c) time when controls shut off burner at estab- 
lished pressure, tests performed, etc. 

( d) signature of operator 

(21) Check safety valve for evidence of simmering. 
Perform try lever test. See Appendix I, Exhibit C. 

B. Action in Case of Abnormal Conditions. If any 

abnormal conditions occur during light-off or pressure 
buildup, immediately open emergency switch. (Do not 
attempt to restart unit until difficulties have been identified 
and corrected.) 



7.03 



CONDENSATION 



Following a cold start, condensation (sweating) may 
occur in a gas fired boiler to such an extent that it appears 
that the boiler is leaking. This condensation can be expected 
to stop after the boiler is hot. 



7.04 CUTTING IN AN ADDITIONAL 

BOILER 

When placing a boiler on the line with other boilers that 
are already in service, first start the boiler using the above 
procedures but have its supply stop valve and the return 
stop valve closed. If one is provided, open the drain valve 
between the stop valve at the boiler outlet and the steam 
main. When the pressure within the boiler is approximately 
the same as the pressure in the steam main, open the stop 
valve very slightly. If there is no unusual disturbance, such 
as noise, vibration, etc., continue to open the valve slowly 
until it is fully open. Open the valve in the return line. 

CAUTION: When the stop valve at the boiler outlet is closed, the 
stop valve in the return line of that boiler must also be closed. 



7.05 OPERATION 

A. Water Level 

(1) Whenever going on duty, check the water level 
of all steaming boilers at once. 

(2) Check the water gage regularly. The required fre- 
quency must be determined by trial. The check should be 



51 



2011a SECTION VI 



made when there is steam pressure on the boiler. Close 
the lower gage glass valve, then open the drain cock that 
is on the bottom of this valve, and blow the glass clear, 
Close the drain cock and open lower gage glass valve. 
Water should return to the gage glass immediately. If water 
return is sluggish, leave the lower gage glass open and 
close the upper gage glass valve. Then open the drain cock 
and allow water to flow until it runs clear. Close the drain 
valve and repeat the first test described, with the lower 
gage glass valve closed. If leaks appear around the water 
gage glass or fittings, correct the leaks at once. Steam leaks 
may result in a false waterline and they also may damage 
the fittings. 

(3) If water disappears from the water gage glass, 
blow down gage glass to see if water appears. If it does 
not appear, then stop the fuel supply immediately. Do not 
turn on the water feed line. Do not open the safety valve. 
Let the boiler cool until the crown sheet is at hand touch 
temperature. Then add water to 1 in. (25 mm) in the gage 
glass. Do not put the boiler back into service until the 
condition responsible for the low water has been identified 
and corrected. 

B. Steaming Pressure. A common unsafe condition 
found in steam heating boilers is due to the failure of the 
safety valve(s) to open at the set pressure. This is usually 
due to the buildup of corrosive deposits between the disk 
and seat of the safety valve and is caused by a slight leakage 
or weeping of the valve. 

The snap-action opening of a safety valve occurs when 
the boiler steam pressure on the underside of the valve 
disk overcomes the closing force of the valve spring. As 
the force of the steam pressure approaches the counter- 
acting force of the spring, the valve tends to leak slightly 
and if this condition is permitted to exist, the safety valve 
can stick or freeze. 

For this reason, the pressure differential between the 
safety valve set pressure and the boiler operating pressure 
should be at least 5 psi (35 kPa), i.e., the boiler operating 
pressure should not exceed 10 psig (70 kPa). If, however, 
the boiler operating pressure is greater than 10 psig 
(70 kPa), it should not exceed 15 psig (100 kPa) minus 
the blowdown pressure of the safety valve. 

This pressure differential is also required to help insure 
that the safety valve will seat tightly after popping and 
when the boiler pressure is reduced to normal operating 
pressure. 

It is very important that periodic testing of safety valves 
is carried out in accordance with Appendix I, Exhibit C, 
paragraph IV. 

C. Blowdown. Where low-pressure steam boilers are 
used solely for heating and where practically all of the 
condensate is returned to the boiler, blow down only as 
often as concentration of solids require. Boilers used for 



process steam requiring high makeup should be blown 
down as required to maintain chemical concentrates at the 
desired level and to remove precipitated sediments. Boilers 
that are equipped with slow-opening blowoff valves and 
a quick-opening blowoff cock should have the levers or 
cocks opened first, followed by a gradual opening and 
closing of the slow-opening valve. When the slow-opening 
valve has been shut tight, then close the lever valve or cock. 

CAUTION: Bo not open the slow-opening valve first and pump the 
Sever action valve open and dosed as water hammer is apt to break 

the valve bodies or pipe fittings. 

D„ Appearance of Rust, If rust appears in the water 
gage glass, this is an indication of corrosion that must not 
be ignored. Check the boiler water to be sure that the water 
treatment compound is at proper strength and make sure 
the boiler is not requiring considerable quantities of 
makeup water. Check the return line and other parts of the 
system for evidence of corrosion. 

E. Waterline Fluctuation. A wide fluctuation of water- 
line may indicate that the boiler is foaming or priming. 
This may be due to the water level in the boiler being 
carried too high, or, especially in low-pressure boilers, a 
very high rate of steaming. Foaming may also be caused 
by dirt or oil in the boiler water. Foaming can sometimes be 
cured by blowing the boiler down, draining 2 in. (50 mm) or 
3 in. (75 mm), then refilling a few times. In persistent 
cases, it may be necessary to take the boiler out of service, 
drain, and wash out thoroughly as described for a new 
steam boiler installation, then refill, and put back into 
service. 

F. Abnormal Water Losses. Where water losses from 
a steam boiler become abnormal, as indicated by the 
requirement of large amounts of manually fed makeup, an 
investigation should be made immediately to determine 
the cause. Boilers operated with automatic water feeders 
requiring an increase in water treatment should be investi- 
gated immediately for cause of loss of water. Proper repair 
or replacement of parts should be made at once rather than 
to increase the water treatment to protect the system due 
to excessive raw water makeup. If the operator cannot 
determine the cause of the water loss, a competent contrac- 
tor should be contacted. 

G. Makeup Water. When water makeup is needed and 
neither the boiler nor the condensate tank is equipped with 
an automatic water feeder, manually add water to the steam 
boiler. 

(1) Use every practical means for excluding oxygen 
from the boiler water. One source of oxygen is makeup 
water; therefore, hold makeup to a minimum. If the boiler 
loses more than 3 in. (75 mm) of water per month, this 
indicates there probably is a leak in some part of the system. 
The leak should be found and corrected. 



52 



2011a SECTION VI 



(2) If the system includes a pump for returning con- 
densate or adding feedwater, be certain that the air vent at 
the receiver is operating properly. 

(3) If large quantities of feedwater are required, 
deaerating equipment is recommended to remove dissolved 
gases, thereby reducing oxygen corrosion. 

H. Low- Water Cutoff* Check the operation of the low- 
water cutoff, pump control, and the water feeder if one is 
installed. Follow the instructions on the tag or plate, 
attached to each control, to blow down the control regularly 
as recommended by the Manufacturer. 

Periodically, the low-water cutoff may be tested under 
actual operating conditions. With the burner operating and 
the boiler steaming at proper water level, close all the 
valves in the feedwater and condensate return lines so 
the boiler will not receive any replacement water. Then 
carefully observe the waterline to determine where the 
cutoff switch stops the burner in relation to the lowest 
permissible waterline established by the boiler 
manufacturer. 

If the burner cutoff level is not at, or slightly above, the 
lowest permissible waterline, in a new installation the low- 
water cutoff should be moved to the proper elevation, or 
in an existing installation it should be serviced, repaired, 
or replaced if necessary. 



7.06 REMOVAL OF BOILER FROM 

SERVICE 

A. Procedure. When a steaming boiler is to be taken 
out of service at the end of the heating season or for repairs, 
proceed as follows: 

(1) While maintaining boiler water temperature, 
180°F to 200°F (82°C to 93°C), drain off boiler water from 
bottom drain until it runs clear. 

(2) Refill to top of gage glass, and add sufficient 
water treatment compound to bring the treatment up to 
strength. 

(3) When all the dissolved gases are released (approx- 
imately 1 hr), shut down the firing equipment by discon- 
necting the main switch. 

(4) For treatment of laid-up boilers, see 9.1 ID. 

B. Cleaning. When the boiler is cool, clean the tubes 
and other fire side heating surfaces thoroughly, and scrape 
the surfaces down to clean metal. Clean the smokeboxes 
and other areas where soot or scale may accumulate. Soot 
is not corrosive when it is perfectly dry, but can be very 
corrosive when it is damp. For this reason, it is necessary 
to remove all the soot from a boiler at the beginning of 
the nonoperating season, or any extended nonfiring period. 

C. Protection Against Corrosion. Swab the fire side 
heating surfaces with neutral mineral oil to protect against 
corrosion. If the boiler room is damp, place a tray of 



calcium chloride or unslaked lime in the combustion cham- 
ber and replace the chemical when it becomes mushy. 

D. Water Level. Drain a steam boiler back to normal 
water level before putting the boiler back in service. 

E. Periodic Checks. Check the boiler occasionally dur- 
ing the idle period and make certain it is not corroded. 



7.07 MAINTENANCE 

A. Cleaning. Clean the boiler tubes and other heating 
surfaces whenever required. The frequency of the cleaning 
can best be determined by trial. A general prediction appli- 
cable to all boilers cannot be made. Also, clean the smoke- 
boxes when required. 

B. Draining. A clean, properly maintained, steam heat- 
ing boiler should not be drained unless there is a possibility 
of freezing, or the boiler has accumulated a considerable 
amount of sludge or dirt on the water side, or unless drain- 
ing is necessary to make repairs. Very little sludge should 
accumulate in a boiler where little makeup water is added 
and where an appropriate water treatment is maintained at 
the proper strength. 

C. Protection Against Freezing. Antifreeze solutions, 
when used in heating systems, should be tested from year 
to year as recommended by the manufacturer of the anti- 
freeze that is used. Antifreeze solutions should not be 
circulated through the boiler proper. The antifreeze solution 
should be heated in an indirect heat exchanger. 

D. Fire Side Corrosion. Previously in this manual 
some of the causes of water side corrosion have been stated 
and procedures recommended to minimize trouble from 
these sources. Boilers can also corrode on the fire side. 
Some fuels contain substances that cause fire side corro- 
sion. Sulphur, vanadium, and sodium are among the materi- 
als that may contribute to this problem. 

(1) Deposits of sulphur compounds may cause fire 
side corrosion. The probability of trouble from this source 
depends on the amount of sulphur in the fuel and on the 
care used in cleaning the fire side heating surfaces. This 
is particularly true when preparing a boiler for a period of 
idleness. Preventing this trouble depends also on keeping 
the boiler heating surfaces dry when a boiler is out of 
service. 

(2) Deposits of vanadium, or vanadium and sodium 
compound, also may cause fire side corrosion, and these 
compounds may be corrosive during the season when boil- 
ers are in service. 

(3) The person responsible for boiler maintenance 
should be certain that the fire side surfaces of the boilers 
in his care are thoroughly cleaned at the end of the firing 
season. If signs of abnormal corrosion are discovered, a 
reputable consultant should be engaged. 



53 



2011a SECTION VI 



E. Safety Valves. Safety valves on steam boilers should 
be tested for proper operation in accordance with 
Appendix I, Exhibit B and Exhibit C. ASME rated safety 
valves shall be installed on the boiler where required by 
jurisdictional regulations. When replacement is necessary, 
use only ASME rated valves of the required capacity. 

F. Burner Maintenance 

(1) Oil Burners. Oil burners require periodic mainte- 
nance to keep the nozzle and other parts clean. Check and 
clean oil line strainers. Inspect and check the nozzle and 
check the oil level in the gear cases. Check and clean 
filters, air intake screens, blowers, and air passages. Check 
all linkages and belts, and adjust as required. Lubricate in 
accordance with manufacturer's recommendations. Check 
pilot burners and ignition equipment for proper flame 
adjustment and performance. 

(2) Gas Burners. Check gas burners for presence of 
dirt, lint, or foreign matter. Be sure parts, gas passages, 
and air passages are free of obstructions. Linkages, belts, 
and moving parts on power burners should be checked for 
proper adjustment. On combination oil and gas burners, 
the gas outlets may become caked with carbon residues 
from unburned fuel oil afterprolonged periods of oil firing 
and require cleaning. Lubricate in accordance with 
Manufacturer's recommendations. Also check pilot burn- 
ers and ignition equipment for proper flame adjustment 
and performance. 

G. Low-Water Fuel Cutoff and Water Feeder 
Maintenance. Low-water fuel cutoffs and water feeders 
should be dismantled annually, by qualified personnel, to 
the extent necessary to insure freedom from obstructions 
and proper functioning of the working parts. Inspect con- 
necting lines to boiler for accumulation of mud, scale, etc., 
and clean as required. Examine all visible wiring for brittle 
or worn insulation and make sure electrical contacts are 
clean and that they function properly. Give special attention 
to solder joints on bellows and float when this type of 
control is used. Check float for evidence of collapse and 
check mercury bulb (where applicable) for mercury separa- 
tion or discoloration. Do not attempt to repair mechanisms 
in the field. Complete replacement mechanisms, including 
necessary gaskets and installation instructions are avail- 
able from the Manufacturer. After reassembly, test as 
per 7.05 H. 

H. Flame Safeguard Maintenance 

(1) Thermal Type Detection Device. Check device 
for electrical continuity and satisfactory current generation 
in accordance with Manufacturer's instructions. After com- 
pleting maintenance, test as per Appendix I, Exhibit C, 
paragraph I A and paragraph IB, and make pilot turndown 
test as per Appendix I, Exhibit C, paragraph IH. 

(2) Electronic Type Detection Device. Replace vac- 
uum tubes or transistors annually with type recommended 
by Manufacturer. Check operation of unit in accordance 



with Manufacturer's instructions and examine for damaged 
or worn parts. Do not attempt to repair these units in 
the field. Replacement assemblies are available from the 
Manufacturer on an exchange basis. Test as specified in 
Appendix I, Exhibit C, paragraphs IC, ID, IE, or IG for 
proper type control and make pilot turndown test as per 
Exhibit C, paragraph IH. 

I. Limit Control Maintenance. Maintenance on pres- 
sure limiting controls is generally limited to visual inspec- 
tion of the device for evidence of wear, corrosion, etc. If 
control is mercury bulb type, check for mercury separation, 
and discoloration of bulb. If the control is defective, replace 
it. Do not attempt to make field repairs. 

J. Cast Iron Boiler Maintenance 

(1 ) Heating Surfaces. Check the firebox gas passages 
and breeching for soot accumulation. Use a wire brush and 
vacuum cleaner, if required, to remove the soot or other 
dirt accumulations. 

(2) Internal Surfaces. If the condition of the water in 
the boiler indicates that there is considerable foreign matter 
in it, the boiler should be allowed to cool, then drained 
and thoroughly flushed out. Remove the blowdown valves 
and plugs in the front and rear sections, and wash through 
these openings with a high-pressure water stream. This 
will normally remove any sludge or loose scale. If there 
is evidence that hard scale has formed on the internal 
surfaces, the boiler should be cleaned by chemical means 
as prescribed by a qualified water treatment specialist. 

K. Steel Boiler Maintenance 

(1) Heating Surfaces. Remove all accumulations of 
soot, carbon, and dirt from the fire side of the boiler. Use 
flue brush to clean the tubes. Clean breeching and stack 
as required. Inspect refractory and make repairs as required. 

(2) Internal Surfaces. Blow down as specified in 
7.05C. If water does not run clear, the boiler should be 
cleaned. After the boiler is allowed to cool, the cleaning 
is accomplished by venting, draining the boiler, removing 
all manhole and handhole covers, and washing the inside 
of the boiler with a high-pressure water stream. Loosen 
any solidified sludge, scale, etc., with a hand scraper. Start 
at the top of the boiler and work down. Flush thoroughly 
after cleaning. Where access is limited or where scale 
buildup is difficult to remove, it may be necessary to clean 
the boiler chemically as prescribed by a qualified water 
treatment specialist. 

L. Use of Flashlight for Internal Inspection. When 

practical, use a flashlight in preference to an extension 
light for internal inspection purposes. If an extension light 
is taken into a boiler, be sure the cord is rugged, in good 
condition, and that it is properly grounded. It should be 
equipped with a vapor- tight globe, substantial guard, and 
nonconducting holder and handle. 



54 



2011a SECTION VI 



M. Leaking Tubes. If one tube in a boiler develops a 
leak due to corrosion, it is likely that other tubes are cor- 
roded also. Have the boiler examined by a capable and 
experienced inspector before ordering the replacement of 
one or a few tubes. If all the tubes will need replacement 
soon, it is preferable and less expensive to have all the 
work done at one time. 

N. Use of Sealant. The use of sealant is not recom- 
mended in a steam boiler. 

O. Maintenance of Condensate Return Systems. 
Inspect and clean the strainer ahead of the pump. Drain and 
flush condensate tank. Check pump packing, float switches, 
and vacuum switches as applicable. For detailed instruc- 
tions, refer to Manufacturer's maintenance data and 
recommendations. 

P. Maintenance Schedule. Listed below are suggested 
frequencies for the various routines and tests to be per- 
formed in connection with inspection and maintenance of 
boilers (see Appendix I, Exhibit B and Exhibit C): 

(1) Daily (Boilers in Service). Observe operating 
pressures, water level, and general conditions. Determine 
cause of any unusual noises or conditions and correct. 

(2) Weekly (Boilers in Service) 

(a) Test low- water fuel cutoff and /or water feeder. 
Blow down boiler if considerable makeup is used (see 
7.05C). 

(b) Test water column or gage glass. 

(c) Observe condition of flame; correct if flame is 
smoky or if burner starts with a puff (for oil, observe daily). 

(d) Check fuel supply (oil only). 

(e) Observe operation of condensate or vacuum 
pump. 

(3) Monthly (Boilers in Sendee) 

(a) Safety valve — try lever test. 

(b) Test flame detection devices. 

(c) Test limit controls. 

(d) Test operating controls. 

(e) Sludge blowdown where required. 

(f) Check boiler room floor drains for proper 
functioning. 

(g) Inspect fuel supply systems in boiler room area. 

(h) Check condition of heating surfaces (for pre- 
heated oil installation, inspect more frequently, twice a 
month). 

(i) Check combustion air supply opening to ensure 
that it is not closed or stopped up. 

(4) Annually 

(a) internal and external inspection after thorough 
cleaning 

(b) routine burner maintenance 

(c) routine maintenance of condensate or vacuum 
return equipment 



(d) routine maintenance of all combustion control 
equipment 

(e) combustion and draft tests 

(f) safety valve pop test 

(g) slow drain test of low-water cutoff 

(h) Inspect gas piping for proper support and 
tightness. 

(i) Inspect boiler room ventilation louvers and 
intake. 



7.08 BOILER REPAIRS 

A. Precaution. Do not permit repairs to a boiler while 
it is in service, or under pressure, except with the approval 
and under the supervision of an authorized boiler inspector 
or responsible engineer. 

B. Notification. When repair work is required, notify 
the authorized boiler and pressure vessel inspector and be 
guided by his recommendations. 

C. Welding Requirements. All repair work should be 
done by experienced boiler mechanics. All welding should 
be done by qualified welders using procedures properly 
qualified according to Section IX. 

D. Safety. Take every precaution necessary to insure 
against injury to men who are working in the boiler room 
and particularly to those working inside the steam space 
or in the combustion chamber of the boiler. Pull the main 
burner switch and lock it out and tag it, swing the burner 
out of place, if possible, close and lock valves, etc., and 
always have one man standing by outside when a man is 
working inside a boiler. 



7.09 TESTS AND INSPECTIONS OF 

STEAM HEATING BOILERS 

A. Tests* The tests recommended for burner efficiency, 
combustion safeguards, safety controls, operating controls, 
limit controls, safety valves, and safety relief valves are 
included in Appendix I, Exhibit C. 

B. Inspection During Construction. This part of boiler 
inspection is covered in Section IV, Heating Boilers: 
HG-515, HG-520, and HG-533 (General Requirements); 
HW-900, HW-910, and HW-911 (Welding); HB-1500, 
HB4501, HB-1502, and HR-1503 (Brazing); and HC-501 
(Cast Iron). 

C. Initial Inspection at Place of Installation. As 
opposed to inspection during manufacture that pertains 
primarily to conforming to Code construction require- 
ments, this inspection will be concerned with whether 
boiler supports,piping arrangements, safety valves, other 
valves, water columns, gage cocks, steam gages, and other 



55 



2011a SECTION VI 



apparatus on the boiler meet Code and/or other jurisdic- 
tional requirements. The inspector usually represents the 
same jurisdiction that will be making subsequent periodic 
inspection. 

D. Periodic Inspecting of Existing Boilers. The main 
purposes for reinspection include protection against loss 
or damage to the pressure vessel because of corrosion, 
pitting, etc., protection against unsafe operating conditions 
possibly caused by changes in piping or controls or lack 
of testing of safety devices. It is important that inspections 
be thorough and complete, and so that important elements 
may all be checked, the following recommended directions 
and instructions for such inspections are given. 

(1) All steam heating boilers should be prepared for 
inspection, whenever necessary, by the owner or user when 
notified by the inspector. 

The owner or user should prepare the boiler for an inter- 
nal inspection and should prepare for and apply the hydro- 
static test whenever necessary on the date specified in the 
presence of a duly qualified inspector. 

(2) Before inspection, every part of a boiler that is 
accessible should be open and properly prepared for exami- 
nation, internally and externally. In cooling down a boiler 
for inspection or repairs, the water should not be withdrawn 
until the setting is sufficiently cooled to avoid damage to 
the boiler and, when possible, it should be allowed to cool 
down naturally. 

(3) Preparation. The owner or user should prepare a 
boiler for internal inspection in the following manner. 

(a) Water should be drained and boiler washed 
thoroughly. 

(b) All manhole and handhole plates, wash-out 
plugs, and water column connections should be removed 
and the furnace and combustion chambers thoroughly 
cooled and cleaned. 

(c) All grates of internally fired boilers should be 
removed. 

(d) Brickwork should be removed as required by 
the inspector in order to determine the condition of the 
furnace, supports, or other parts. 

(e) Any leakage of steam or hot water into the 
boiler should be cut off by disconnecting the pipe or valve 
at the most convenient point. 

(4) It is not necessary to remove insulation material, 
masonry, or fixed parts of the boiler unless defects or 
deterioration are suspected. Where there is moisture or 
vapor showing through the covering, the covering should 
be removed at once and a complete investigation made. 

Every effort should be made to discover the true condi- 
tion, even if it means drilling holes or cutting away parts. 

(5) The inspector should get as close to the parts of 
the boiler as is possible in order to obtain the best possible 
vision of the surface and should use a good artificial light 
if natural light is inadequate. 



(6) Whenever the inspector deems it necessary to test 
boiler apparatus, controls, etc., these tests should be made 
by a plant operator in the presence of the inspector, unless 
otherwise ordered. 

(7) Scale, Oil, etc. The inspector should examine all 
surfaces of the exposed metal inside to observe any action 
caused by treatment, scale solvents, oil, or other substances 
that may have entered the boiler. Any evidence of oil 
should be noted carefully, as a small amount is dangerous, 
and immediate steps should be taken to prevent the entrance 
of any more oil into the boiler. Oil or scale on plates over 
the fire of any boiler is particularly bad, often causing 
sufficient weakening to bag or rupture. 

(8) Corrosion, Grooving. Corrosion along or immedi- 
ately adjacent to a seam is more serious than a similar 
amount of corrosion in the solid plate away from the seams. 
Grooving and cracks along longitudinal seams are espe- 
cially significant as they are likely to occur when the mate- 
rial is highly stressed. Severe corrosion is likely to occur 
at points where the circulation of water is poor; such places 
should be examined very carefully. 

For the purpose of estimating the effect of corrosion or 
other defects upon the strength of a shell, comparison 
should be made with the efficiency of the longitudinal joint 
of the same boiler, the strength of which is usually less 
than that of the solid sheet. 

(9) Stays. All stays, whether diagonal or through, 
should be examined to see if they are in even tension. All 
fastened ends should be examined to note if cracks exist 
where the plate is punched or drilled. If stays are not 
found in proper tension, their proper adjustment should be 
recommended. 

(10) Manholes and Other Openings. The manhole(s) 
and other reinforcing plates, as well as nozzles and other 
connections flanged or screwed into the boiler, should be 
examined internally as well as externally to see that they are 
not cracked or deformed. Wherever possible, observation 
should be made from the inside of the boiler as to the 
thoroughness with which its pipe connections are made to 
the boiler. All openings to external attachments, such as 
water column connections, openings in dry pipes, and open- 
ings to safety valves, should be examined to see if they 
are free from obstructions. 

(11) Fire Surfaces — Bulging, Blistering, Leaks. Par- 
ticular attention should be given to the plate or tube surface 
exposed to fire. The inspector should observe whether any 
part of the boiler has become deformed during operation 
by bulging or blistering. If bulges or blisters are of such 
size as would seriously weaken the plate or tube, and 
especially when water is leaking from such a defect, the 
boiler should be discontinued from service until the defec- 
tive part or parts have received proper repairs. Careful 
observation should be made to detect leakage from any 
part of the boiler structure, particularly in the vicinity of 



56 



2011a SECTION VI 



seams and tube ends. Firetubes sometimes blister but rarely 
collapse; the inspector should examine the tubes for such 
defects; if they are found to have sufficient amount of 
distortion to warrant it, they should be replaced. 

(12) Lap Joints. Lap joint boilers are apt to crack 
where the plates lap in the longitudinal or straight seam. 
If there is any sign of leakage or other distress at this joint, 
it should be investigated thoroughly to determine if cracks 
exist in the seam. Any cracks noted in shell plates are 
usually dangerous. 

(13) Testing Stay bolts. The inspector should test stay- 
bolts by tapping one end of each bolt with a hammer and, 
when practicable, a hammer or other heavy tool should be 
held at the opposite end to make the test more effective. 

(14) Tube Defects. Tubes in horizontal firetube boil- 
ers deteriorate more rapidly at the ends toward the fire, 
and they should be carefully tapped with a light hammer 
on their outer surface to ascertain if there has been a serious 
reduction in thickness. The tubes of vertical tubular boilers 
are more susceptible to deterioration at the upper ends 
when exposed to the products of combustion without water 
cooling. They should be reached as far as possible either 
through the handholes, if any, or inspected at the ends. 

The surface of tubes should be carefully examined to 
detect bulges or cracks or any evidence of defective welds. 
Where there is a strong draft, the tubes may become thinned 
by erosion produced by the impingement of particles of 
fuel and ash. A leak from a tube frequently causes serious 
corrosive action on a number of tubes in its immediate 
vicinity. 

(15) Ligaments Between Tube Holes. The ligaments 
between tube holes in the heads of all firetube boilers 
and in shells of watertube boilers should be examined. If 
leakage is noted, broken ligaments are probably the reason. 

(16) Pipe Connections and Fittings. The steam and 
water pipes, including connections to the water columns, 
should be examined for leaks; if any are found, it should 
be determined whether they are the result of excess strains 
due to expansion or contraction or other causes. The general 
arrangement of the piping in regard to the provisions for 
expansion and drainage, as well as adequate support at the 
proper points, should be carefully noted. The location of 
the various stop valves should be observed to see that water 
will not accumulate when the valves are closed and thereby 
establish cause for water-hammer action. 

The arrangement of connections between individual 
boilers and the main steam header should be especially 
noted to see that any change of position of the boiler due 
to settling or other causes has not placed an undue strain 
on the piping. 

It should be ascertained whether all pipe connections to 
the boiler possess the proper strength in their fastenings, 
whether tapped into or welded to the boiler shell. The 



inspector should determine whether there is proper provi- 
sion for the expansion and contraction of such piping and 
that there is no undue vibration tending to damage the 
parts subjected to it. This includes all steam and water 
pipes; special attention should be given to the blowoff 
pipes with their connections and fittings because the expan- 
sion and contraction due to rapid changes in temperature 
and water-hammer action bring a great strain upon the 
entire blowoff system. The freedom of the blowoff and 
drain connections on each boiler should be tested whenever 
possible by opening the valve for a few seconds at which 
time it can be determined whether there is excessive 
vibration. 

(17) Water Column. The piping to the water column 
should be carefully inspected to see that there is no chance 
of water accumulating in the pipe forming the steam con- 
nection to the water column. The steam pipe should prefera- 
bly drain toward the water column. The water pipe 
connection to the water column must drain toward the 
boiler. 

The position of the water column relative to the fire 
surfaces of the boiler should be observed to determine 
whether the column is placed in accordance with Code 
requirements. 

The attachments should be examined to determine their 
operating condition. 

If examination is made with steam on the boiler, the 
water column and gage glass should be observed to see 
that the connections to the boiler are free as shown by the 
action of the water in the glass. The water columns and 
gage glasses should be blown down on each boiler to 
determine definitely the freedom of the connections to the 
boilers as well as to see that the blowoff piping from the 
columns and gage glasses are free. The gage glasses should 
be observed to see that they are clean and that they are 
properly located to permit ready observation. The freedom 
of the gage glass should be determined by test. 

(18) Low-Water Cutoff and Water Feeder. All auto- 
matically fired steam or vapor boilers shall be equipped 
with an automatic low-water fuel cutoff or water feeding 
device so constructed that the water inlet valve cannot feed 
water into the boiler through the float chamber, if one is 
employed, and so located as to automatically cut off the 
fuel supply or supply requisite feedwater when the surface 
of the water falls below the lowest safe waterline. This 
line should not be lower than the bottom of the water glass. 

Such a fuel or feedwater control device may be attached 
directly to the boiler shell or to the tapped openings pro- 
vided for attaching a water glass direct to a boiler, provided 
that such connections from the boiler are nonferrous tees 
or Ys not less than V 2 m - pip e si ze between the boiler and 
the water glass so that the water glass is attached direct 
and as close as possible to the boiler. The straightway 
tapping of the Y or tee should take the water glass fittings 



57 



2011a SECTION VI 



and the side outlet of the Y or tee should take the fuel 
cutoff or water feeding device. 

Designs employing a float and float bowl shall have a 
vertical straightway-valve drain pipe at the lowest point in 
the water equalizing pipe connections, by which the bowl 
and the equalizing pipe can be flushed and the device 
tested. 

(19) Baffling in Watertube Boilers. In watertube boil- 
ers it should be noted as well as possible whether the 
proper baffling is in place. The absence of baffling often 
causes high temperatures on portions of the boiler structure 
that are not intended for such temperatures, and from this 
a dangerous condition may result. The location of combus- 
tion arches with respect to tube surfaces should be noted 
to make sure they do not cause the flame to impinge on a 
particular part of the boiler and produce overheating of the 
material and consequent danger of rupture. 

(20) Localization of Heat. Localization of heat 
brought about by improper or defective burner or stoker 
installation or operation, creating a blowpipe effect upon 
the boiler, should be cause for shutdown of the boiler until 
the condition is corrected. 

(21) Suspended Boilers — Freedom of Expansion. 
Where boilers are suspended, the supports and setting 
should be examined carefully, especially at points where 
the boiler structure comes near the setting walls or floor, 
to make sure that ash and soot will not bind the boiler 
structure at such points and produce excessive strains on 
the structure owing to the expansion of the parts under 
operating conditions. 

(22) Safety Valves. As the safety valve is the most 
important safety device on the boiler, it should be inspected 
with the utmost care. There should be no accumulation of 
rust, scale, or other foreign substances in the body of the 
valve that will interfere with its free operation. The valve 
should not leak under operating conditions. The opening 
pressure and freedom of operation of the valve should be 
tested preferably by raising the steam pressure to the point 
of opening. If this cannot be done, the valve should be 
tested by opening with the try lever in accordance with 
the procedure in Exhibit C. Where the valve has a discharge 
pipe the inspector should determine at the time the valve 
is operating whether or not the drain opening in the dis- 
charge pipe is free and in accordance with the Code 
requirement. 

If the inspector deems it necessary, in order to determine 
the freedom of discharge from a safety valve, the discharge 



connection should be removed. Under no circumstances 
shall a stop valve be permitted between a steam boiler and 
its safety valve. 

(23) Steam, Gages. A test gage connection should be 
provided on the boiler so that the gage on the boiler can 
be tested under operating pressure. The steam gage should 
not be exposed to excessively high ambient temperatures 
and should be mounted with a siphon or trap between it 
and the boiler. Provisions should be made for blowing out 
the piping leading to the steam gage. 

(24) Imperfect Repairs. When repairs have been 
made, especially tube replacements, the inspector should 
observe whether the work has been done safely and prop- 
erly. Excessive rolling of tubes, where they are accessible, 
is a common fault of inexperienced workmen. When it is 
difficult to reach the tube end and observe the extent of 
rolling, however, they are frequently underrolled. This 
inevitably results in separation of the parts. 

(25) Hydrostatic Tests. When there is a question or 
doubt about the extent of a defect found in a boiler, the 
inspector, in order to more fully decide upon its seri- 
ousness, should cause the application of hydrostatic pres- 
sure under the Code provisions. 

A hydrostatic pressure test shall not exceed l!/ 2 times 
the maximum allowable working pressure. During the test, 
the safety valve should be removed from the boiler. It is 
suggested that the minimum temperature of the water be 
70°F (21°C) and maximum 160°F (71°C). All controls and 
appurtenances unable to withstand the test pressure without 
damage should be removed during the test. 

(26) Suggestions. The inspector, whether he is the 
employee of a state, province, municipality, or insurance 
company, should be well informed of the natural and 
neglectful causes of defects and deterioration of boilers. 
He should be extremely conscientious and careful in his 
observations, taking sufficient time to make the examina- 
tions thorough in every way, taking no one's statement as 
final as to conditions not observed by him, and, in the 
event of inability to make a thorough inspection, he should 
note it in his report and not accept the statement of others. 

The inspector should make a general observation of the 
condition of the boiler room and apparatus, as well as of 
the attendants, as a guide in forming an opinion of the 
general care of the equipment. He should question responsi- 
ble employees as to the history of old boilers, their peculiar- 
ities and behavior, ascertain what, if any, repairs have been 
made and their character, and he should investigate and 
determine whether they were made properly and safely. 



58 



2011a SECTION VI 



8. OPERATION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR — 
HOT WATER BOILERS AND HOT WATER HEATING 

BOILERS 



8.01 STARTING A NEW BOILER AND 

HEATING SYSTEM 
A. Cleaning and Filling a New Boiler 

(1) Inspection for Foreign Objects. Prior to starting 
a new boiler an inspection should be made to insure that 
no foreign matter such as tools, equipment, rags, etc., is 
left in the boiler. 

(2) Checks Before Filling. Before putting water into 
a new boiler, make certain that the firing equipment is in 
operating condition to the extent that this is possible with- 
out actually lighting a fire in the empty boiler. This is 
necessary because raw water must be boiled [or heated to 
at least 180°F (82°C)] promptly after it is introduced into 
the boiler in order to drive off the dissolved gases, that 
might otherwise corrode the boiler. In a hot water heating 
system, the boiler and entire system (other than the expan- 
sion tank) must be full of water for satisfactory operation. 
The red, or fixed, hand on the combination altitude gage 
and thermometer is normally set to indicate the amount of 
pressure required to fill the system with cold water. Water 
should be added to the system until the black hand registers 
the same or more than the red hand. To insure that the 
system is full, water should come out of all air vents when 
opened. 

(3) Boiling Out The oil and grease that accumulate 
in a new hot water boiler can be washed out in the following 
manner. 

(a) Add an appropriate boilout compound. 1 

(b) Fill the entire system with water. 

(c) Start the firing equipment. 

(d) Circulate the water through the entire system. 

(e) Vent the system, including the radiation. 

(f) Allow boiler water to reach operating tempera- 
ture, if possible. 

(g) Continue to circulate the water for a few hours. 
(h) Stop the firing equipment. 



1 A qualified water treatment chemical specialist should be consulted 
for recommendations regarding appropriate chemical compounds and 
concentrations that are compatible with local environmental regulations 
governing disposal of the boilout solutions. 



(i) Drain the system in a manner and to a location 
that hot water can be discharged with safety. 

(j) Wash the water side of the boiler thoroughly, 
using a high-pressure water stream. 

(k) Refill the system with fresh water. 

(I) Bring water temperature to at least 180°F 
(82°C) promptly and vent the system at the highest point. 

(m) Tighten handhole covers, manhole covers, and 
plugs while boiler is hot. 

(n) The boiler is now ready to put into service or 
on standby. 



8.02 STARTING A BOILER AFTER LAYUP 

(SINGLE BOILER INSTALLATION) 
A. Procedure. When starting a boiler after lay up, pro- 
ceed as follows. 

(1 ) Review Manufacturer's recommendations for 
startup burner and boiler. 

(2) Fill boiler and system; vent air at high point in 
system. 

(3) Check altitude gage and expansion tank to assure 
system is properly filled. 

(4) Set control switch in "Off position. 

(5) Make sure fresh air to boiler room is unobstructed 
and manual dampers are open. 

(6) Check availability of fuel. 

(7) Vent combustion chamber to remove unburned 
gases. 

(8) Clean glass on fire scanner, if provided. 

(9) Observe proper functioning of water pressure reg- 
ulator and turn circulator pumps on electrically. 

(10) Check temperature control(s) for proper setting. 

(11) Check manual reset button on low-water fuel 
cutoff and high-limit temperature control. 

(12) Set manual fuel oil supply or manual gas valve 
in open position. 

(13) Place circuit breaker or fuse disconnect in. "On" 
position. 

(14) Place all boiler emergency switches in "On" 
position. 



59 



2011a SECTION VI 



(15) Place boiler control starting switch in ''On" or 
"Start" position. (Do not stand in front of boiler doors or 
breeching.) 

(16) Do not leave boiler until it reaches the estab- 
lished cutout point to make sure the controls shut off the 
burner. 

(1 7) During the temperature and pressure buildup 
period, walk around the boiler frequently to observe that all 
associated equipment and piping is functioning properly. 
Visually check burner for proper combustion. 

(18) Immediately after burner shuts off, inspect water 
pressure and open the highest vent to determine that system 
is completely full of water. 

(19) Enter in log book; 

(a) date and time of startup 

(b) any irregularities observed and corrective 
action taken 

(c) time when controls shut off burner at estab- 
lished temperature, tests performed, etc. 

(d) signature of operator 

(20) Check safety relief valve for evidence of leaking. 
Perform try lever test. See Appendix I, Exhibit C. 

B. Action in Case of Abnormal Conditions. If any 

abnormal conditions occur during lights off or temperature 
buildup, immediately open emergency switch. (Do not 
attempt to restart unit until difficulties have been identified 
and corrected.) 



8.03 



CONDENSATION 



Following a cold start, condensation may occur in a gas 
fired boiler to such an extent that it appears that the boiler 
is leaking. This condensation can be expected to stop after 
the boiler is hot. 



8.04 CUTTING IN AN ADDITIONAL 
BOILER 

When placing a boiler on the line with other boilers that 
are already in service, start the boiler using the above 
procedures, but have its supply stop valve and the return 
stop valve closed. Bring to the same temperature as the 
operating boiler and partially open the supply valve(s). If 
there is no unusual disturbance, such as noise, vibration, 
etc., continue to open the valve slowly until it is fully open. 
Open the valve in the return line. 

CAUTION: When the stop valve at the boiler outlet is closed, the 
stop valve in the return line of that boiler must also be closed. 

8.05 OPERATION 

A. Check of Pressure and Temperature. Whenever 
going on duty, check the pressure and temperature in all 
water boilers. 



B. Position of Hands on Combination Gage. When 
the boiler is cold, the stationary and movable hands of 
the combination altitude pressure gage should be together; 
when the boiler is hot, the movable hand should be above 
the stationary hand. The stationary hand should be aligned 
with the movable hand at the time the system is initially 
filled, or it may be set to indicate the minimum pressure 
under which the system can operate and still maintain a 
positive pressure at the highest point in the system. 

C. Operating Temperature and Pressure 

( 1) Operating Temperature. The maximum operating 
temperature of the boiler water should never exceed 250°F 
(121 °C), and should be as low as possible to heat the space 
adequately under design conditions. Higher temperatures 
will accelerate any corrosion process. 

(2) Operating Pressure. A common unsafe condition 
found in hot water heating boilers is due to the failure of 
the safety relief valve(s) to open at the set pressure. This 
is usually due to buildup of corrosive deposits between the 
disk and seat of the valve and is caused by a slight leakage 
or weeping of the valve. 

The opening of a safety relief valve occurs when the 
boiler water pressure on the underside of the valve disk 
overcomes the closing force of the valve spring. As the 
force of the water pressure approaches the counteracting 
force of the spring, the valve tends to leak slightly and if 
this condition is permitted to exist, the safety relief valve 
can stick or freeze. 

For this reason, the pressure differential between the 
safety relief valve set pressure and the boiler operating 
pressure should be at least either 10 psi (69 kPa) or 25% 
of the valve set pressure, whichever is greater. 

(3) Temperature and Pressure Safety Relief Valves. 
When boilers limited to a maximum temperature of 210°F 
(99 °C) have a temperature and pressure safety relief valve 
installed, the operating temperature must be low enough 
to prevent routine operation of the thermal element. This 
could lead to degradation of the valve. 

When the thermal element opens, it will not close until 
the temperature has been reduced by 25°F to 35°F (14°C 
to 19°C) below the opening temperature. Therefore, the 
maximum operating temperature should not exceed 160°F 
(70°C). 

Examples: 

(a) The operating pressure of a hot water heating boiler 
where the safety relief valve is set to open at 30 psi 
(200 kPa) should not exceed 20 psig (140 kPa). 

(b) If the safety relief valve on a hot water heating boiler 
is set to open at 100 psi (630 kPa), the boiler operating 
pressure should not exceed 75 psig (520 kPa). 

Section IV does not require that safety relief valves have 
a specified blowdown. To help insure that the safety relief 
valve will close tightly after popping and when the boiler 



60 



2011a SECTION VI 



pressure is reduced to the normal operating pressure, these 
pressure differentials between the valve set pressures and 
operating pressures should not be exceeded. 

It is very important that periodic testing of safety relief 
valves is carried out in accordance with Appendix I, 
Exhibit C, paragraph V. 



8,06 REMOVAL OF BOILER FROM 

SERVICE 

A. Procedure. For a water boiler, the procedure is to 
drain from the bottom of the boiler while it is still hot 
[1 80°F to 200°F (82°C to 93°Q] until the water runs clean, 
then to refill to the normal water fill pressure. This should 
be a yearly procedure. If water treatment is used in the 
system, sufficient treatment compound should be added to 
condition the added water. For further information, see 
9.1 ID. 

B. Cleaning. When the boiler (any of those referred to 
above) is cool, clean the tubes and other heating surfaces 
thoroughly, and scrape the surfaces down to clean metal. 
Clean the smokeboxes and other areas where soot or scale 
may accumulate. Soot is not corrosive when it is perfectly 
dry, but can be very corrosive when it is damp. For this 
reason, it is necessary to remove all the soot from a boiler at 
the beginning of the nonoperating season, or any extended 
nonhring period. 

C. Protection Against Corrosion. Swab the fire side 
heating surfaces with neutral mineral oil to protect against 
coiTOsion. If the boiler room is damp, place a tray of 
calcium chloride or unslaked lime in the combustion cham- 
ber and replace the chemical when it becomes mushy. 

D. Periodic Checks. Check the boiler occasionally dur- 
ing the idle period and make certain it is not corroded. 
This is an opportune time to repaint the exposed metal 
parts of the boiler and to inspect and service the firing 
equipment and combustion chamber. 



8.07 MAINTENANCE 

A. Cleaning 

(!) General Clean the boiler tubes and other heating 
surfaces whenever required. The frequency of the cleaning 
can best be determined by trial. A general prediction appli- 
cable to all boilers cannot be made. Also, clean the smoke- 
boxes when required. 

(2) Backwashing of Water Heater. Any water heater 
installed in or connected to a boiler should be backwashed 
periodically, using valves to reverse the direction of flow 
through the heater. The purpose of this backwashing is to 
reduce the amount of scale that will accumulate at the 
outlet side of the heater. Continue the backwashing until 



the water runs clear. The backwashing may be done fre- 
quently and the maximum interval should be determined 
by trial. 

B. Draining. A clean, properly maintained heating 
boiler should not be drained unless there is a possibility of 
freezing, unless the boiler has accumulated a considerable 
amount of sludge or dirt on the water side, or unless drain- 
ing is necessary to make repairs. Very little sludge should 
accumulate in a boiler where little makeup water is added 
and where an appropriate water treatment is maintained at 
the proper strength. If it proves necessary to drain the boiler 
and heating piping to do repair work, and the various parts 
of the system cannot be isolated to prevent such draining, 
it would be wise to consider the installation of valves and 
drains at that time to prevent this from occurring again. 
Considerable time and expense can be saved the next time 
repairs are necessary, and the amount of raw water required 
is also reduced. 

C. Protection Against Freezing. Antifreeze solutions 
when used in heating systems shall be of the ethylene 
glycol base type with an inhibitor added. 

Antifreeze concentrations should not be less than 33% 
nor greater than 66%. [100% antifreeze has a freezing point 
of about -6°F (-21°C) while a concentration of 68% has 
a freezing point of about -~92°F (-69°C) and a 50% solution 
has a freezing point of about -34°F (-37°C).] 

The service life of an antifreeze solution depends on 
such factors as heating system design and condition, hours 
of operation, solution and metal temperatures, aeration, and 
rate of contamination. Therefore, the antifreeze solution 
should be tested at least once a year and as recommended 
by the manufacturer of the antifreeze that is used. 

High metal temperatures accelerate depletion of the anti- 
freeze inhibitors. For maximum service life, the metal tem- 
perature in contact with the solution should be kept under 
350°F (176°C). The fluid temperature should not exceed 
250°F (120°C). 

Antifreeze solution is harmful or may be fatal if swal- 
lowed; therefore, antifreeze solutions should be used only 
in closed circulating systems entirely separated from pota- 
ble water supply systems. 

Antifreeze solutions expand more than water for a given 
rise in temperature (i.e., a 50% by volume solution expands 
4.8% by volume with a temperature increase from 32°F 
(0°C) to 180°F (82°C), while water expands 3% with this 
same rise in temperature). Allowance must be made for 
this expansion when an antifreeze solution is used in a 
heating system. 

D. Fire Side Corrosion. Previously in this manual 
some of the causes of water side corrosion have been stated 
and procedures recommended to minimize trouble from 
these sources. Boilers can also corrode on the fire side. 



61 



2011a SECTION VI 



Some fuels contain substances that cause fire side corro- 
sion. Sulphur, vanadium, and sodium are among the materi- 
als that may contribute to this problem. 

(1) Deposits of sulphur compounds may cause fire 
side corrosion. The probability of trouble from this source 
depends on the amount of sulphur in the fuel and on the 
care used in cleaning the fire side heating surfaces. This 
is particularly true when preparing a boiler for a period of 
idleness. Preventing this trouble depends also on keeping 
the boiler heating surfaces dry when a boiler is out of 
service. 

(2) Deposits of vanadium or vanadium and sodium 
compound also may cause fire side corrosion, and these 
compounds may be corrosive during the season when boil- 
ers are in service. 

(3) The person responsible for boiler maintenance 
should be certain that the fire side surfaces of the boilers 
in his care are thoroughly cleaned at the end of the firing 
season. Also, he should observe the fire side surfaces and 
if signs of abnormal corrosion are discovered, a reputable 
consultant should be engaged. 

E. Safety Relief Valves. Safety relief valves on hot 
water heating and hot water supply boilers should be tested 
for proper operation in accordance with Appendix I, 
Exhibit B and Exhibit C. ASME rated valves shall be 
installed on the boiler where required by jurisdictional 
regulations. When replacement is necessary, use only 
ASME rated valves of the required capacity. 

F. Burner Maintenance 

(J) Oil Burners. Oil burners require periodic mainte- 
nance to keep the nozzle and other parts clean. Check and 
clean oil line strainers. Inspect and check the nozzle and 
check the oil level in the gear cases. Check and clean 
filters, air intake screens, blowers, and air passages. Check 
all linkages and belts, and adjust as required. Lubricate in 
accordance with Manufacturer's recommendations. Check 
pilot burners and ignition equipment for proper flame 
adjustment and performance. 

(2) Gas Burners, Check gas burners for presence of 
dirt, lint, or foreign matter. Be sure ports, gas passages, 
and air passages are free of obstructions. Linkages, belts, 
and moving parts on power burners should be checked for 
proper adjustment. On combination oil and gas burners, 
the gas outlets may become caked with carbon residue 
from unburned fuel oil after prolonged periods of oil firing 
and require cleaning. Lubricate in accordance with 
Manufacturer's recommendations. Also check pilot burn- 
ers and ignition equipment for proper flame adjustment 
and performance. 

G. Low- Water Fuel Cutoff. Low-water fuel cutoffs 
and water feeders should be dismantled annually by quali- 
fied personnel, to the extent necessary to insure freedom 
from obstructions and proper functioning of the working 



parts. Inspect connecting lines to boiler for accumulation 
of mud, scale, etc., and clean as required. Examine all 
visible wiring for brittle or worn insulation and make sure 
electrical contacts are clean and that they function properly. 
Give special attention to solder joints on bellows and float 
when this type of control is used. Check float for evidence 
of collapse and check mercury bulb (where applicable) for 
mercury separation or discoloration. Do not attempt to 
repair mechanisms in the field. Complete replacement 
mechanisms, including necessary gaskets and installation 
instructions, are available from the Manufacturer. After 
reassembly, test, if installation permits, without draining 
water from the boiler. 

H. Flame Safeguard Maintenance 

(1) Thermal Type Detection Device. Check device 
for electrical continuity and satisfactory current generation 
in accordance with Manufacturer' s instructions. After com- 
pleting maintenance, test as per Appendix I, Exhibit C, 
paragraphs IA and IB, and make pilot turndown test as per 
Exhibit C, paragraph IH. 

(2) Electronic Type Detection Device. Replace vac- 
uum tubes or transistors annually with type recommended 
by Manufacturer. Check operation of unit in accordance 
with Manufacturer's instructions and examine for damaged 
or worn parts. Do not attempt to repair these units in 
the field. Replacement assemblies are available from the 
Manufacturer on an exchange basis. Test as specified in 
Appendix I, Exhibit C, paragraphs IC, ID, IE, IF, or IG 
for proper type control and make pilot turndown test as 
per Exhibit C, paragraph IH. 

I. Limit Control Maintenance. Maintenance on tem- 
perature limiting control is generally limited to visual 
inspection of the device for evidence of wear, corrosion, 
etc. If control is mercury bulb type, check for mercury 
separation and discoloration of bulb. If the control is defec- 
tive, replace it. Do not attempt to make field repairs. 

J. Cast Iron Boiler Maintenance 

(1) Heating Surfaces. Check the firebox gas passages 
and breeching for soot accumulation. Use a wire brush and 
vacuum cleaner, if required, to remove the soot or other 
dirt accumulation. 

(2) Internal Surfaces. If the condition of the water in 
the boiler indicates that there is considerable foreign matter 
in it, the boiler should be allowed to cool, then drained 
and thoroughly flushed out. Remove the washout plugs 
and wash through the openings with a high-pressure water 
stream. This will normally remove any sludge or loose 
scale. If there is evidence that hard scale has formed on the 
internal surfaces, the boiler should be cleaned by chemical 
means as prescribed by a qualified water treatment 
specialist. 

K. Steel Boiler Maintenance 

(I) Heating Surfaces. Remove all accumulations of 
soot, carbon, and dirt from the fire side of the boiler. Use 



62 



2011a SECTION VI 



flue brush to clean the tubes. Clean breeching and stack 
as required. Inspect refractory and make repairs as required. 
(2) Internal Surfaces. If the condition of the water in 
the boiler indicates that there is considerable foreign matter 
in it, the boiler should be allowed to cool, then drained and 
thoroughly flushed out. Remove all handhole and manhole 
covers and wash through these openings with a high- 
pressure water stream. This will normally remove any 
sludge or loose scale. If there is evidence that hard scale 
has formed on the internal surfaces, the boiler should be 
cleaned by chemical means as prescribed by a qualified 
water treatment specialist. 

L. Use of Flashlight for Internal Inspections. When 
practical, use a flashlight in preference to an extension 
light for internal inspection purposes. If an extension light 
is taken into a boiler, be sure the cord is rugged, in good 
condition, and that it is properly grounded. It should be 
equipped with a vapor-tight globe, substantial guard, and 
nonconducting holder and handle. 

M. Leaking Tubes. If one tube in a boiler develops a 
leak due to corrosion, it is likely that other tubes are cor- 
roded also. Have the boiler examined by a capable and 
experienced inspector before ordering the replacement of 
one or a few tubes. If all the tubes will need replacement 
soon, it is preferable and less expensive to have all the 
work done at one time. 

N. Use of Sealants. Sealants may have a detrimental 
effect on boilers, pumps, safety relief valves, etc., and 
therefore their use is not recommended in hot water heating 
or hot water supply boilers. 

O. Maintenance of Circulating Pumps and 

Expansion Tanks. Inspect the circulating pump(s) and 
lubricate in accordance with the Manufacturer's instruc- 
tions. Check the operation of all associated controls, 
switches, etc. Examine expansion tank for dirt, tightness, 
and evidence of corrosion. Clean and repair as required. For 
detailed instructions, refer to the Manufacturer's literature, 
instructions, and data. 

P. Maintenance Schedule. Listed below are suggested 
frequencies for the various routines and tests to be per- 
formed in connection with inspection and maintenance of 
boilers (see Appendix I, Exhibit A and Exhibit B), 

(1) Daily (Boilers in Service). Observe operating 
pressures and temperature and general conditions. Deter- 
mine cause of any unusual noises or conditions and make 
necessary corrections. 

(2) Weekly (Boilers in Service) 

(a) Observe condition of flame; correct if flame is 
smoky or if burner starts with a puff (for oil, observe daily). 

(b) Check fuel supply (oil only). 

(c) Observe operation of circulating pump(s). 

(3) Monthly (Boilers in Service) 



(a) Safety relief valve — try lever test. 

(b) Test flame detection devices. 

(c) Test limit controls. 

(d) Test operating controls. 

(e) Check boiler room floor drains for proper 
functioning. 

(f) Inspect fuel supply systems in boiler room area. 

(g) Check condition of heating surfaces (for pre- 
heated oil installation, inspect more frequently: twice a 
month). 

(h) Perform combustion and draft tests (preheated 
oil only). 

(i) Test low-water fuel cutoff and/or water feeder 
if piping arrangement permits without draining consider- 
able water from the boiler. 
(4) Annually 

(a) internal and external inspection after thorough 
cleaning 

(b) routine burner maintenance 

(c) routine maintenance of circulating pump and 
expansion tank equipment 

(d) routine maintenance of entire combustion con- 
trol equipment 

(e) combustion and draft tests 

(f) safety relief valve(s) — pop test 

(g) slow drain test of low-water cutoff 

(h) Inspect gas piping for proper support and 
tightness. 

(i) Inspect boiler room ventilation louvers and 
intake. 



8.08 BOILER REPAIRS 

A. Precaution. Do not permit repairs to a boiler while 
it is in service, or under pressure, except with the approval 
and under the supervision of an authorized boiler inspector 
or responsible engineer. 

B. Notification. When repair work is required, notify 
the authorized boiler and pressure vessel inspector and be 
guided by his recommendations. 

C. Welding Requirements. All repair work should be 
done by experienced boiler mechanics. AH welding should 
be done by qualified welders using procedures properly 
qualified according to Section IX. 

D. Safety. Take every precaution necessary to insure 
against injury to men who are working in the boiler room 
and particularly to those working inside the boiler or in 
the combustion chamber of the boiler. Pull the main burner 
switch and lock it out and tag it, swing the burner out of 
place, if possible, close and lock valves, etc., and always 
have one man standing by outside when a man is working 
inside a boiler. 



63 



2011a SECTION VI 



8.09 TESTS AND INSPECTIONS OF HOT 

WATER HEATING AND SUPPLY 
BOILERS 

A. Tests. The tests recommended for burner efficiency, 
combustion safeguards, safety controls, operating controls, 
limit controls, safety valves and safety relief valves, are 
included in Appendix I, Exhibit C. 

B. Inspection During Construction. This part of boiler 
inspection is covered in Section IV, Heating Boilers; 
HG-515, HG-520, and HG-533 (General Requirements); 
HW-900, HW-910, and HW-911 (Welding); HB-1500, 
HB-1501, HB-1502, and HB-1503 (Brazing); and HC-501 
(Cast Iron), 

C. Initial Inspection at Place of Installation, As 
opposed to inspection during manufacture that pertains 
primarily to conforming to Code construction require- 
ments, this inspection will be concerned with whether 
boiler supports,piping arrangements, safety relief valves, 
other valves, water columns, gage cocks, altitude gages, 
thermometers, controls, and other apparatus on the boiler 
meet Code and /or other jurisdictional requirements. The 
inspector usually represents the same jurisdiction that will 
be making subsequent periodic inspections. 

D. Periodic Inspecting of Existing Boilers, The main 
purposes for reinspection include protection against loss 
or damage to the pressure vessel because of corrosion, 
pitting, etc., protection against unsafe operating conditions 
possibly caused by changes in piping or controls or lack 
of testing of safety devices. It is important that inspections 
be thorough and complete, and so that important elements 
may all be checked, the following recommended directions 
and instructions for such inspections are given. 

(1) All hot water heating and supply boilers should 
be prepared for inspection, whenever necessary, by the 
owner or user when notified by the inspector. 

The owner or user should prepare the boiler for an inter- 
nal inspection and should prepare for and apply the hydro- 
static test whenever necessary on the date specified in the 
presence of a duly qualified inspector. 

(2) Before inspection, every part of a boiler that is 
accessible should be open and properly prepared for exami- 
nation, internally and externally. In cooling down a boiler 
for inspection or repairs, the water should not be withdrawn 
until the setting is sufficiently cooled to avoid damage to 
the boiler and, when possible, it should be allowed to cool 
down naturally. 

(3 ) Preparation. The owner or user should prepare a 
boiler for internal inspection in the following manner. 

(a) Water should be drained and boiler washed 
thoroughly. 

(b) All manhole and handhole plates, wash-out 
plugs and water column connections should be removed 



and the furnace and combustion chambers thoroughly 
cooled and cleaned. 

(c) All grates of internally fired boilers should be 
removed. 

(d) Brickwork should be removed as required by 
the inspector in order to determine the condition of the 
furnace, supports, or other parts. 

(e) Any leakage of hot water into the boiler should 
be cut off by disconnecting the pipe or valve at the most 
convenient point. 

(4) It is not necessary to remove insulation material, 
masonry, or fixed parts of the boiler unless defects or 
deterioration are suspected. Where there is moisture or 
vapor showing through the covering, the covering should 
be removed at once and a complete investigation made. 

Every effort should be made to discover the true condi- 
tion, even if it means drilling holes or cutting away parts. 

(5) The inspector should get as close to the parts of 
the boiler as is possible in order to obtain the best possible 
vision of the surface and to use a good artificial light if 
natural light is not adequate. 

(6) Whenever the inspector deems it necessary to test 
boiler apparatus, controls, etc., these tests should be made 
by a plant operator in the presence of the inspector, unless 
otherwise ordered. 

(7) Scale, Oil, etc. The inspector should examine all 
surfaces of the exposed metal inside to observe any action 
caused by treatment, scale solvents, oil, or other substances 
that may have entered the boiler. Any evidence of oil 
should be noted carefully, as a small amount is dangerous, 
and immediate steps should be taken to prevent the entrance 
of any more oil into the boiler. Oil or scale on plates over 
the fire of any boiler is particularly bad, often causing 
sufficient weakening to bag or rupture. 

(8) Corrosion, Grooving. Corrosion along or immedi- 
ately adjacent to a seam is more serious than a similar 
amount of corrosion in the solid plate away from the seams. 
Grooving and cracks along longitudinal seams are espe- 
cially significant, as they are likely to occur when the 
material is highly stressed. Severe corrosion is likely to 
occur at points where the circulation of water is poor; such 
places should be examined very carefully. 

For the purpose of estimating the effect of corrosion or 
other defects upon the strength of a shell, comparison 
should be made with the efficiency of the longitudinal joint 
of the same boiler, the strength of which is usually less 
than that of the solid sheet. 

(9) Stays. All stays, whether diagonal or through, 
should be examined to see if they are in even tension. All 
fastened ends should be examined to note if cracks exist 
where the plate is punched or drilled. If stays are not 
found in proper tension, their proper adjustment should be 
recommended. 



64 



2011a SECTION VI 



(10) Manholes and Other Openings. The manhole(s) 
and other reinforcing plates, as well as nozzles and other 
connections flanged or screwed into the boiler, should be 
examined internally as well as externally to see that they are 
not cracked or deformed. Wherever possible, observation 
should be made from the inside of the boiler as to the 
thoroughness with which its pipe connections are made to 
the boiler. All openings to external attachments, such as 
connections to a low- water cutoff and openings to safety 
relief valves, should be examined to see if they are free 
from obstructions. 

(11) Fire Surfaces — Bulging, Blistering, Leaks. Par- 
ticular attention should be given to the plate or tube surface 
exposed to fire. The inspector should observe whether any 
part of the boiler has become deformed during operation 
by bulging or blistering. If bulges or blisters are of such 
size as would seriously weaken the plate or tube, and 
especially when water is leaking from such a defect, the 
boiler should be discontinued from service until the defec- 
tive part or parts have received proper repairs. Careful 
observation should be made to detect leakage from any 
part of the boiler structure, particularly in the vicinity of 
seams and tube ends. Firetubes sometimes blister but rarely 
collapse; the inspector should examine the tubes for such 
defects; if they are found to have sufficient amount of 
distortion to warrant it, they should be replaced. 

(12 ) Lap Joints. Lap joint boilers are apt to crack 
where the plates lap in the longitudinal or straight seam. 
If there is any sign of leakage or other distress at this joint, 
it should be investigated thoroughly to determine if cracks 
exist in the seam. Any cracks noted in shell plates are 
usually dangerous. 

(13) Testing Stay bo Its. The inspector should test stay- 
bolts by tapping one end of each bolt with a hammer and, 
when practicable, a hammer or other heavy tool should be 
held at the opposite end to make the test more effective. 

(14) Tube Defects. Tubes in horizontal firetube boil- 
ers deteriorate more rapidly at the ends toward the fire and 
they should be carefully tapped with a light hammer on 
their outer surface to ascertain if there has been a serious 
reduction in thickness. They should be reached, as far as 
possible, either through the handholes, if any, or inspected 
at the ends. 

The surface of tubes should be carefully examined to 
detect bulges or cracks or any evidence of defective welds. 
Where there is a strong draft, the tubes may become thinned 
by erosion produced by the impingement of particles of 
fuel and ash. A leak from a tube frequently causes serious 
corrosive action on a number of tubes in its immediate 
vicinity. 

(15) Ligaments Between Tube Holes. The ligaments 
between tube holes in the heads of all firetube boilers 
and in shells of watertube boilers should be examined. If 
leakage is noted, broken ligaments are probably the reason. 



(16) Pipe Connections and Fittings. All piping should 
be examined for leaks; if any are found, it should be deter- 
mined whether they are the result of excess strains due 
to expansion or contraction or other causes. The general 
arrangement of the piping in regard to the provisions for 
expansion and drainage, as well as adequate support at the 
proper points, should be carefully noted. 

The arrangement of connections between individual 
boilers and the supply and return headers should be espe- 
cially noted to see that any change of position of the boiler 
due to settling or other causes has not placed an undue 
strain on the piping. 

It should be ascertained whether all pipe connections to 
the boiler possess the proper strength in their fastenings, 
whether tapped into or welded to the boiler shell. The 
inspector should determine whether there is proper provi- 
sion for the expansion and contraction of such piping and 
that there is no undue vibration tending to damage the 
parts subjected to it. This includes all water pipes; special 
attention should be given to the blowoff pipes with their 
connections and fittings because the expansion and contrac- 
tion due to rapid changes in temperature and water-hammer 
action bring a great strain upon the entire blowoff system. 
The freedom of the blowoff and drain connection on each 
boiler should be tested, whenever possible, by opening the 
valve for a few seconds, at which time it can be determined 
whether there is excessive vibration. 

(17) Low-Water Cutoff. All automatically fired hot 
water heating or supply boilers should be equipped with 
an automatic low-water fuel cutoff so located as to automat- 
ically cut off the fuel supply when the surface of the water 
falls below the lowest safe waterline. Such a fuel control 
device may be attached directly to the boiler shell or to 
the tapped openings provided for attaching a water glass 
direct to a boiler. 

(18) Designs embodying a float and float bowl shall 
have a vertical straightway-valve drain pipe at the lowest 
point in the water equalizing pipe connections, by which 
the bowl and the equalizing pipe can be flushed and the 
device tested. 

(19) Baffling in Watertube Boilers. In watertube boil- 
ers it should be noted as well as possible whether the 
proper baffling is in place. The absence of baffling often 
causes high temperatures on portions of the boiler structure 
that are not intended for such temperatures and from this 
a dangerous condition may result. The location of combus- 
tion arches with respect to tube surfaces should be noted 
to make sure they do not cause the flame to impinge on a 
particular part of the boiler and produce overheating of the 
material and consequent danger of rupture. 

(20) Localization of Heat. Localization of heat 
brought about by improper or defective burner or stoker 
installation or operation, creating a blowpipe effect upon 



65 



2011a SECTION VI 



the boiler, should be cause for shutdown of the boiler until 
the condition is corrected. 

(21) Suspended Boilers — Freedom of Expansion. 
Where boilers are suspended, the supports and setting 
should be examined carefully, especially at points where 
the boiler structure comes near the setting walls or floor, 
to make sure that ash and soot will not bind the boiler 
structure at such points and produce excessive strains on 
the structure owing to the expansion of the parts under 
operating conditions. 

(22) Safety Relief Valves. As the safety relief valve 
is the most important safety device on the boiler, it should 
be inspected with the utmost care. 

There should be no accumulation of rust, scale, or other 
foreign substances in the body of the valve that will inter- 
fere with its free operation. The valve should not leak under 
operating conditions. The opening pressure and freedom of 
operation of the valve should be tested preferably by raising 
the water pressure to the point of opening (Pop Test, 
Appendix I, Exhibit C). If this cannot be done, the valve 
should be tested by opening with the try lever in accordance 
with the procedure in Appendix I, Exhibit C. Where the 
valve has a discharge pipe, the inspector should determine 
at the time the valve is operating whether or not the drain 
opening in the discharge pipe is free and in accordance 
with the Code requirement. 

If the inspector deems it necessary, in order to determine 
the freedom of discharge from a safety relief valve, the 
discharge connection should be removed. Under no circum- 
stances shall a stop valve be permitted between a boiler 
and its safety relief valve. 

(23) Combination Temperature and Pressure Gages. 
A test gage connection should be provided on the boiler 
so that the gage on the boiler can be tested under operating 
conditions. The gage should not be exposed to excessively 
high ambient temperatures. 



(24) Imperfect Repairs. When repairs have been 
made, especially tube replacements, the inspector should 
observe whether the work has been done safely and prop- 
erly. Excessive rolling of tubes, where they are accessible, 
is a. common fault of inexperienced workmen. When it is 
difficult to reach the tube end and observe the extent of 
rolling, however, they are frequently underrolled. This 
inevitably results in separation of the parts. 

(25) Hydrostatic Tests. When there is a question or 
doubt about the extent of a defect found in a boiler, the 
inspector, in order to more fully decide upon its seri- 
ousness, should cause the application of hydrostatic pres- 
sure under the Code provisions. 

A hydrostatic pressure test shall not exceed I 1 /) times 
the maximum allowable working pressure. During the test, 
the safety relief valve should be removed from the boiler, 
as should all controls and appurtenances unable to with- 
stand the test pressure without damage. It is suggested that 
the minimum temperature of the water be 70°F (21 °C) and 
the maximum 160°F (71°C). 

(26) Suggestions. The inspector, whether he is the 
employee of a state, province, municipality, or insurance 
company, should be well informed of the natural and 
neglectful causes of defects and deterioration of boilers. 
He should be extremely conscientious and careful in his 
observations, taking sufficient time to make the examina- 
tions thorough in every way, taking no one's statement as 
final as to conditions not observed by him, and, in the 
event of inability to make a thorough inspection, he should 
note it in his report and not accept the statement of others. 

The inspector should make a general observation of the 
boiler room and apparatus, as well as of the attendants, as 
a guide in forming an opinion of the general care of the 
equipment. He should question responsible employees as 
to the history of old boilers, their peculiarities and behavior, 
ascertain what, if any, repairs have been made and their 
character, and he should investigate and determine whether 
they were made properly and safely. 



66 



2011a SECTION VI 



9. WATER TREATMENT 



9.01 



SCOPE 



This Section covers recommended procedures for the 
treatment of water in steam and hot water heating boilers. 



9.02 



CONSIDERATIONS 



In deciding whether or not to treat the water, and if so, 
what type of treatment to use, the following factors should 
be considered: 

(1) the type of boiler, i.e., cast iron or steel, steam 
or hot water; 

(2) the nature of the raw water, i.e., hard or soft, 
corrosive or scale forming; 

(3) preliminary treatment of the water, i.e., softeners, 
preheaters, deaerators; 

(4) the amount of makeup water and blowdown 
required; 

(5) the use of the steam, i.e., for heating only or for 
other purposes; and 

(6) the amount of supervision and control testing 
available. 



9.03 SERVICES OF WATER TREATMENT 
SPECIALISTS 

Each boiler installation should be considered on an indi- 
vidual basis. If there appears to be any question regarding 
treatment required, review the final decision with a reputa- 
ble water treatment company. These companies furnish a 
service and /or chemicals for boiler water treatment. They 
are in a position to make recommendations based on local 
water conditions and the particular installation involved. 
They also furnish test kits accompanied by simple analyti- 
cal procedures for day-to-day analysis by the local mainte- 
nance people. Samples are taken at suitable intervals and 
sent to their laboratories for confirmatory analysis. In set- 
ting up arrangements with such concerns, do not hesitate 
to ask the chemical formula of the treatments prescribed. 

9.04 CONFORMITY WITH LOCAL 
ORDINANCES 

Make sure the boiler compound used does not violate 
any local ordinance with respect to disposal of blowdowns, 
draining of boilers, etc. 



9.05 BOILER WATER TROUBLES 

A. Corrosion. Raw water, as received from the city 
mains or wells, contains impurities including dissolved 
gases such as oxygen and carbon dioxide. When the water 
is soft, this makes the water acid and corrosive. The boiler 
system metal and condensate return lines will be attacked. 
This can be general overall corrosion or localized pitting 
or cracking in stressed metal. High temperatures accelerate 
these reactions. If uncorrected, serious pitting can result 
with possible rupture of boiler tubes. Rusty water in the 
gage glass is a sure sign of corrosion in the heating system 
or in the boiler itself. 

B. Scale Deposits. All raw water contains dissolved 
salts. Where the water is hard, these are mainly calcium and 
magnesium compounds. Under boiler operating conditions, 
these salts come out of solution and form scale deposits 
on the hot boiler metal. This is due to decomposition of 
the bicarbonates and to the decreased solubility of calcium 
salts at higher temperatures. As the water is evaporated, 
the solids are left behind and the scale deposits build up. 
Scale forms an insulating barrier on the boiler tubes, 
resulting in heat losses and lower efficiency. Scale deposits 
can also cause overheating and failure of boiler metal. 

C. Metal (Caustic) Emforittlement. Under certain con- 
ditions of high caustic alkalinity where the metal is under 
stress, cracks can develop in the metal below the waterline 
and under rivets, welds, and longitudinal seams. This type 
of failure is not common and is confined to steel boilers. 

D. Foaming, Priming, and Carryover. These diffi- 
culties, occurring in steam boilers only, are closely associ- 
ated and refer to the formation of froth and sudson the 
surface of the water. Where this is severe, boiler water is 
carried over with the steam. Excessive dissolved solids 
carried over can form deposits in the steam piping and 
valves. There is also a loss in efficiency. 



9.06 



CHEMICALS USED 



The following chemicals are commonly used for boiler 
water treatment. 

A. Inorganic 

(1) Caustic Soda (sodium hydroxide) — NaOH 

(2) Trisodium Phosphate (TSP) — Na 3 P0 4 



67 



2011a SECTION VI 



(3) Sodium Acid Phosphate — NaH 2 P0 4 

(4) Sodium Tripolyphosphate — Na5P 3 Oio 

(5) Sodium Borate — Na 2 B 4 7 

(6) Sodium Sulphite — Na 2 S0 3 

(7) Sodium Nitrate — NaN0 3 

(8) Sodium Nitrite — NaN0 2 

B. Organic 

(1) Sodium Alginate and other seaweed derivatives 

(2) Quebrancho Tannin 

(3) Lignin Sulfonate 

(4) Starch 



9.07 FUNCTIONS OF CHEMICALS 

A. Caustic Soda. Caustic soda is used to insure proper 
pH and complete precipitation of the magnesium salts. The 
optimum pH is 1.1.0 with a permissible minimum of 7.0. 

B. Chromates and Sulphites. Sodium chromate and 
sodium sulphite are used to control corrosion. Sodium 
sulphite is an oxygen scavenger picking up the oxygen 
that converts the sulphite to sodium sulphate. 

CAUTION: Chromate is still recognized as one of the best inhibitors 
for protection of metal, although it is now prohibited by most states 
or cities for use as water treatment due to the toxic effect of the 
chromate when dumped in rivers, streams, and sanitary sewage 
systems. 

C. Phosphates. The various sodium phosphates serve 
to precipitate the hard water salts as insoluble lime and 
magnesia phosphates. Polyphosphates are a form of phos- 
phate that sequester rather than precipitate. 

D. Nitrates and Nitrites. Nitrates serve to prevent 
metal embrittlement. Nitrites act similarly to sulphites, but 
under certain conditions where dissimilar metals are 
immersed in the boiler water, particularly copper or brass 
and soft solder, nitrites can cause very severe localized 
corrosion unless suitable inhibiting agents are present. 
Until recently, nitrites have not been commonly used where 
the water is boiled. Their use is generally confined to hot 
water systems. 

E. Organic Agents. The organic agents act as protec- 
tive colloids. When the inorganic treatment chemicals pre- 
cipitate the hard water salts, these organic agents tend to 
keep the insoluble matter in suspension as a sludge and 
prevent the formation of dense adherent scale on the heat 
transfer boiler surfaces. 

F. Boiler Compounds. Commercial boiler compounds 
are, for the most part, mixtures of the chemicals described 
in the above part. They may be either solid or liquid. The 
latter are solutions of the chemicals and may present easier 
handling and feeding. While the combinations are many, 
there are two widely used basic types. 



(1) those based on chromates 

(2) those based on alkaline salt combinations plus 
sodium sulphite 



9.08 TREATMENT ALTERNATIVES 

A. External or Internal Treatment. Water for boiler 
use may be treated externally or internally. One practical 
external treatment is by means of a zeolite softener. Where 
the water is very hard, it is frequently more economical 
to install a softener than to pay for the extra treatment 
required by the hard water. Using softened water, however, 
can create other problems. Corrosion is aggravated due to 
increased carbon dioxide, and foaming is apt to occur. The 
use of deaerators to remove oxygen and carbon dioxide 
by heating the water before it enters the boiler might be 
considered external treatment. In general, however, the 
principal problem is internal treatment. 

B. Seasonal or Continuous Treatment In considering 
boiler water treatment, installations can be divided into 
three categories, as follows: 

(1) Class 1 — No treatment 

(2) Class 2 — Seasonal or semiseasonal treatment 
with limited chemical control 

(3) Class 3 — Complete treatment with continuous 
chemical control 

C. Treatment of Cast Iron Boilers. Cast iron boil- 
ersare more resistant to corrosion than steel boilers. In 
small low-pressure heating units, particularly where the 
metal is cast iron, it may be practical to rely on annual 
cleanouts and operate without any treatment. Where the 
steam system is tight, free from leaks, and all the steam 
is returned to the boiler as condensate, the amount of 
makeup water is small. The corrosive gases exhaust them- 
selves on the metal, and while scale forms, it is not exces- 
sive, so that the interference with heat transfer is not large. 
Where no treatment is used, it may be necessary after 
several years to use acid cleaning to remove the scale. It 
should be remembered, however, that a perfect system 
does not exist (in general, at best, a 90% to 95% condensate 
return can be expected), and that it might be safer to follow 
the recommendations given under Class 2 above, seasonal 
or semiseasonal treatment. 



9.09 



BLOWDOWN 



The purpose of blowdown is to keep the amount of 
dissolved solids and sludge in the boiler water under con- 
trol. As the water is turned into steam, the solids remain 
behind and unless there is 100% condensate return, the 
solid content tends to build up. As a rule of thumb, about 
1000 ppm can be considered as a safe maximum. A hard 
water containing 200 ppm in the feedwater would tolerate 



68 



2011a SECTION VI 



five concentrations in the boiler. On the other hand, a soft 
water with 25 ppm solids could be concentrated 40 times 
before reaching the critical point. To maintain satisfactory 
operation conditions the first water would require 20% 
blowdown while the second would require only 2%. With 
soft water, blowdown can possibly be held to once or twice 
a season. With hard water, blowdown may be necessary 
once a month or even once a week. Blowdown should be 
held to a minimum, since it involves heat losses and, if 
excessive, wastes treatment chemicals. Drains receiving 
blowdown water should be connected to the sanitary sewer. 



9.10 



FEEDERS 



Simple feeders are preferable, particularly where the 
treatment is to be added periodically, i.e., more than once 
or twice a season. Where there is any appreciable amount 
of blowdown, or loss of condensate, additional treatment 
will be necessary from time to time. A number of different 
types may be employed. These include open-type gravity 
feeders where the treatment is to be fed manually in one 
slug or in periodic small shots; closed-type gravity-drip 
and bypass feeders where the treatment is to be fed in 
proportion to the amount of makeup water; and pot type 
proportional feeders where slowly dissolving treatment 
crystals or briquettes are used. 



9.11 PROCEDURES 

A. Determination of Water Containing Capacity. 
Determine the water containing capacity of the boiler so 
instructions can be given regarding the required amount 
of boiler water treatment compound. If this information is 
not given on the boiler, in the boiler catalog, or other 
publications, then meter the water at the time of the initial 
filling and record the information. 

B. Making a pH or Alkalinity Test The condition of 
the boiler water can be quickly tested with hydrion paper 
that is used in the same manner as litmus paper, except it 
gives specific readings. A color chart on the side of the 
small hydrion dispenser gives the reading in pH. Hydrion 
paper is inexpensive and obtainable from any chemical 
supply house or through your local druggist. If a more 
precise measurement of pH is desired, a color slide compa- 
rator kit is recommended. 

C. Mixing and Handling Chemicals. The chemicals, 
if liquid, should be diluted; or if solid, dissolved in accor- 
dance with the supplier's directions before adding them to 
the system. If the treatment is a solid, make sure it is fully 
dissolved. A simple hand paddle to stir the solution is 
frequently all that is necessary. If the chemicals are slow 
to dissolve, a steam line for heating the water and agitating 
the mixture may be used to accelerate solution. The use 



of compressed air for this purpose is undesirable since 
additional oxygen will be introduced that will neutralize 
reducing agents such as sodium sulphite. Since the treat- 
ment chemicals may be highly alkaline or skin irritating, 
it is advisable to wear goggles and gloves when they are 
being handled and mixed. 

CAUTION: Do not permit the dry material or the concentrated 
solution to come in contact with skin or clothing. 

D. Treatment of Laid-Up Boilers. When steel boilers 
are out of service for any length of time, such as a layup 
for the summer, they must be protected from corrosion. 
This may be done either by draining them and keeping the 
surfaces thoroughly dry or by completely filling the boiler 
with properly treated water, 

(1) Dry Method. The boiler is drained, flushed, and 
inspected. The surfaces are then thoroughly dried by means 
of hot air. If the boiler room is dry and well ventilated, 
the boiler may be left open to the atmosphere. An alternate 
procedure is to use a suitable moisture absorbent, such as 
quicklime or silica gel, that is placed in the boiler in a 
suitable location. The boiler is then tightly closed. Every 
two or three months the boiler should be checked and the 
lime or gel replaced or regenerated if necessary. The dry 
method is not used on cast iron boilers. 

(2) Wet Method. The boiler is drained, flushed, and 
inspected. It is then filled to the normal water level and 
steamed for a short time with the boiler vented to the 
atmosphere to expel dissolved gases. If the boiler is to be 
used to heat water or for reheat in connection with an air 
conditioning system, it may be left in this state ready to 
operate. If, however, it is to be completely idle for some 
time, it is preferable to fill the boiler to the top of the drum. 
In any case, treatment should be used. This may be the 
treatment regularly being used, or a caustic soda (400 ppm) 
and sodium sulphite mixture (100 ppm), or sodium chro- 
mate, in which case a minimum of at least 100 ppm should 
be maintained on steam boilers and 300 ppm on hot water 
boilers. During the down time, if feasible, it is good practice 
to occasionally circulate the water with a pump. This is 
necessary to prevent stratification and insure that fresh 
inhibitor is in contact with the metal. This is also true of 
hot water systems. It is a well-known fact that corrosion 
is apt to be more serious during the down time than when 
the boiler is actually in service. The wet method is generally 
used on cast iron boilers. 



9.12 GLOSSARY OF WATER 

TREATMENT TERMS 

Brief explanations for some of the terms and abbrevia- 
tions used in this Section are given below. 

acid: any chemical compound containing hydrogen that 
dissociates to produce hydrogen ions when dissolved in 



69 



2011a SECTION VI 



water. Capable of neutralizing hydroxides or bases to pro- 
duce salts. 

acidity: the state of being acid; the degree of quantity 
of acid present 

alkali: any chemical compound of a basic nature that 
dissociates to produce hydroxyl ions when dissolved in 
water. Capable of neutralizing acids to produce salts. 

alkalinity: the state of being alkaline; the degree or quan- 
tity of alkali present. In water analysis, it represents the 
carbonates, bicarbonates, hydroxides, and occasionally the 
borates, silicates, and phosphates present as determined by 
titration with standard acid and generally expressed as 
calcium carbonate in parts per million. 

amines: a class of organic compounds that may be con- 
sidered as derived from ammonia by replacing one or more 
of the hydrogen ions with organic radicals. They are basic 
in character and neutralize acids. Those used in water 
treatment are volatile and are used to maintain a suitable 
pH in steam and condensate lines. 

blow down: the water removed under pressure from the 
boiler through the drain valve to eliminate sediment and 
reduce total solids 

buffer: a chemical that tends to stabilize the pH of a 
solution preventing any large change on the addition of 
moderate amounts of acids or alkalies 

catalyst: a substance that by its presence accelerates a 
chemical reaction without itself entering into the reaction 

chelating: the property of a chemical when dissolved in 
water that keeps the hard water salts in solution and thus 
prevents the formation of scale. Generally applied to 
organic compounds such as the salts of ethylenediaminetet- 
raacetic acid (EDTA). 

colloid: a fine dispersion in water that does not settle 
out but that is not a true solution. Protective colloids have 
the ability of holding other finely divided particles in 
suspension. 

condensate: the water formed by the cooling and con- 
densing of steam 

dispersant: a substance added to the water to prevent the 
precipitation and agglomeration of solid scale; generally a 
protective colloid 

grains per gallon (gpg): a measure used to denote the 
quantity of a substance present in water (1 gpg = 17.1 ppm) 



hydrazine: a strong reducing agent having the formula 
N 2 NNH 2 in the form of a colorless hygroscopic liquid. 
Used as an oxygen scavenger. 

inhibitor: a compound that slows down or stops an unde- 
sired chemical reaction such as corrosion or oxidation 

makeup: water added from outside the boiler water sys- 
tem to the condensate 

molecular weight: the sum of the atomic weights of all 
the constituent atoms in the molecule of a compound 

muriatic acid: commercial hydrochloric acid 

neutralize: the counteraction of acidity with an alkali or 
of alkalinity with an acid to form neutral salts 

orthophosphate: a form of phosphate that precipitates 
rather than sequesters hard water salts 

parts per million (ppm): the most commonly used 
method of expressing the quantity of a substance present 
in water. More convenient to use than percent due to the 
relatively small quantities involved. 

pH: a scale used to measure the degree of acidity or 
alkalinity of a solution. The scale runs from 1 (strong 
acid) to 14 (strong alkali) with 7 (distilled water) as the 
neutral point. 

polymerization: the union of a considerable number of 
simple molecules, called monomers, to form a giant mole- 
cule, known as a polymer, having the same chemical 
composition 

polyphosphate: a form of phosphate that sequesters 
rather than precipitates hard water salts 

precipitation: the formation and settling out of solid 
particles in a solution 

sequestering: the property of a chemical when dissolved 
in water that keeps the hard water salts in solution and 
thus prevents the formation of scale. Generally applied to 
inorganic compounds such as sodium tripolyphosphate or 
sodium hexametaphosphate. 

titration: a method for determining volumetrically the 
concentration of a desired substance in solution by adding 
a standard solution of known volume and strength until 
the chemical reaction is completed as shown by a change 
in color of suitable indicator 

zeolite: originally a group of natural minerals capable 
of removing calcium and magnesium ions from water and 
replacing them with sodium. The term has been broadened 
to include synthetic resins that similarly soften water by 
ion exchange. 



70 



2011a SECTION VI 



MANDATORY APPENDICES 



MANDATORY APPENDIX I 
EXHIBITS 



71 



EXHIBIT A 



Maintenance, Testing, and Inspection ] 


Log 






Building; 


Month: 


Year: 


Steam Heating Boilers 


Address: 


Fuel Type: 


Person(s) to be Notified in Emergency (Name and Telephone No.) 


Boiler No.: 


DAILY CHECKS 




1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


1 1 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


IS 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


24 


25 


26 


27 


28 


29 


30 


31 


(1) Observe Water Level 
































































(2) Record Pressure 
































































(3) Record Flue Gas Temperature 






























































































































WEEKLY CHECKS (Enter Date) 




WEEK 1 


WEEK 2 


WEEK 3 


WEEK 4 


(1) Test Low Water Cutoff 










(2) Test Gage Glass 










(3) Observe Flame Condition 










MONTHLY CHECKS (Enter Date) 


(1) Manual Lift Safety Valve 




(2) Review Condition of 
or Test Each Item 


(A) Linkages 




(F) Floor Drains 




(B) Damper Controls 




(G) Flame Detection Device 




(C) Stop Valves 




(H) Limit Controls 




(D) Refractory 




(I) Operating Controls 




(E) Flue-Chimney Breeching 








(3) Inspect Fuel Piping 




(4) Combustion Air Adequate/Unobstructed 




General Comments: 



n 

s 

2 



(Instructions on Reverse) 



2011a SECTION VI 



EXHIBIT A (Bftcfc) 

mmmcrmm 

l Fill in the name of the building, its location, boiler number, fuel type used, mnti the year Name the 
person to be contacted in an emergency or malfunction 

it. Daily Checks 

(1| Observe water level in the water column sight glass (see ASMI Section VI — 7 05A) 

|2) Record boiler pressure indicated by the gage at the boiler 

(3) Record the flue gas temperature. (This should be read with the boiler running md i at pressure.) 

til. Weekly Checks {Record the date the test or check was completed) 

0) Drain float chamber while boiler is running to determine if the control will shut down the boiler 

(see ASME Section VI ~~ 7 05H) 
(2} Close the lower gage gas valve, then open drain cock which is on the bottom of this valve and 

blow the glass clear. Close the drain cock and open lower gage glass valve. Water should return 

to the gage glass immediately [see ASM£ Section VI — 7 0SA(2|] 
(3) Observe flame condition, 

IV Monthly Checks (Record the date the test or check was- completed.) 

|1) Lift try-lever to full open and release it to snap shut (see; ASM E Section VI — Exhibit C IV-A). 

(2) Review the condition of or test each item: 

(A) Check linkages for damage or disconnection (see ASME Section VI — 7.07P) 

(B) Watch damper controls during operation to be sure they operate properly 

(C) Check stop valves 

(D) If possible without opening boiler, check the refractory for cracking and deterioration 
{E) Check the flue-chimney breeching for signs of leakage, damage, or deterioration 

(F) Test floor drains to be sure they are. draining properly 

03) Test flame detection device 

(N) Test limit controls 

(!) Test operating controls 

(3) Inspect fuel piping for leakage md damage 

V, Log Retention 

Retain this log for at least 1 year (see AS'ME Section VI — 8.0SC). 



73 



EXHIBIT B 



Maintenance, Testing, and Inspection Log 






Building; 


Month; 


Year: 


Hot Water Heating Boilers 


Address: 


Fuel Type: 


Person(s) to be Notified in Emergency (Name and Telephone No.) 


Boiler No,: 


DAILY CHECKS 




1 


2 


3 


4 


S 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


24 


2S 


26 


27 


28 


29 


.30 


31 


(1) Record Pressure 
































































(2) Record Boiler Water Temperature 
































































(3) Record Flue Gas Temperature 
































































































































WEEKLY CHECKS (Enter Date) 




WEEK 1 


WEEK 2 


WEEK 3 


WEEK 4 


(1) Observe Flame Condition 










(2) Observe Circulating Pumps 




















MONTHLY CHECKS (Enter Date) 


(1) Manual Lift Relief Valve 




(2) Review Condition of 
or Test Each Item 


(A) Flame Detection Devices 




(F) Refractory 




(B) Limit Controls 




(G) Stop Valves 




(C) Operating Controls 




(H) Check Valves 




(D) Floor Drains 




(I) Drain Valves 




(E) Fuel Piping 




(J) Linkages 




(3) Observe Gage Glass on Expansion Tank 




(4) Combustion Air Adequate/Unobstructed 




General Comments: 



w 
o 

H 

O 
2 



(Instructions on Reverse) 



2011a SECTION VI 



EXHIBIT B {Sack! 

msrmmmm 

I. Fill in the name of the building, its location, boiler 'number, fuel type used, and the year. Name the 
person to be contacted in an emergency or malfunction. 

IL Daily Checks 

|1) Record pressure ^see ASMS* Section VI — 8.05)* 

(2) Record temperature- (see A'S'ME Section VI — 8,05), 

{3) Record the flue-gas temperature, (This should be read with the boiler running and at pressure.) 

III. Weekly Checks (Record the date the test o^r check was completed.) 

(1) Observe flame condition, 

|2) Observe circulating pumps for proper operation, 

IV, Month iy Checks (Record the date the test or check was completed.) 

(1) Lift try-lever to full open and release it to snap shut {see A$M£ Section VI — Exhibit C IV-A), 

{2) Review' the condition of or test each item: 

(A) Test flame detection devices {$m AS ME Section VI — 8.07H) 
(S) Test limit controls 

(C) Test operating controls 

(D) Test floor drains to be sure they are draining properly 
{£) Check fuel piping for leikag'e 

(F) If possible without opening boiler, check the refractory for cracking m4 deterioration 

|G) Check stop valves 

{H) Inspect check valves 

(1) Check drain valves 

(J) Check linkages for damage or disconnection 
{3} Observe water level of page glass on expansion tank, (Optional) 
(4) Check combustion air supply for obstructions and adequacy of air flow, 

V Log Retention 

Retain this log for at least .1 year (see ASME Section VI — S..09C}. 



75 



2011a SECTION VI 



EXHIBIT C 



TESTS 

Periodic tests of all important boiler components are 
required to maintain them in good working condition and 
to assure safety. Adequate precautions should be taken 
while tests are being performed to protect personnel mak- 
ing the tests, building occupants, and equipment. In addi- 
tion to the usual mechanic's tools, one or more test leads, 
a test pressure gage, a test thermometer, and volt-ohmmeter 
will be required in connection with certain tests. The test 
leads should consist of approximately 3 ft (1 m) of insulated 
No. 14 gage stranded wire, equipped with properly insu- 
lated alligator clips. The test gage should be a good quality 
inspector's gage, graduated in increments of not more than 
1 psi each. These gages require periodic calibration. This 
can be done only in a properly equipped laboratory. The 
thermometer should read to at least 400°F (200°C) with 
no more than 2 deg per graduation. 

Following are recommended procedures for making var- 
ious tests. 



I. FLAME SAFEGUARD DEVICE 

A. Gas — Thermal Type 

(1) While burner is in operation, shut off manual gas 
valve. 

(2) Turn off pilot gas cock and time the interval for 
the automatic gas valve to close. This time should be no 
longer than that recommended by the Manufacturer. 

(3) If test is okay, relight pilot, turn on main gas 
valve, and allow burner to fire. 

(4) Check burner for proper operation. 

B. Oil — Thermal Type, Stack Switch 

(1) Shut off the manual valve in the oil supply line 
and time the interval required for the oil solenoid valve to 
close. Check this time against that recommended by the 
Manufacturer, 

(2) If test is okay, retire burner and observe its 
operation. 

(3) The manual shutoff must be a gate valve installed 
just ahead of the oil solenoid valve. 

C. Gas — Electronic Flame Rod Type With 
Standing Pilot 

(I) With the burner firing normally, turn off the main 
gas cock. 



(2) Turn off the pilot gas cock and time the interval 
required for the safety shutoff gas valve to close. Should 
be 4 sec or less. Check with Manufacturer's data. 

(3) If test is okay, relight pilot, reset controls, and 
fire boiler. Observe operation. 

D. Gas — Electronic Flame Rod With Interrupted 
Ignition 

(1) With the burner firing normally, turn off the main 
gas cock and time the interval for the shutoff gas valve to 
close. Should be 4 sec or less. Check with 
Manufacturer's data. 

(2) If test is okay, open main gas cock, reset controls, 
and fire burner. Observe operation. 

E. Gas — Electronic Flame Scanner Type. Same as 
D above. 

F. Oil — Electronic Flame Scanner Type 

(1) With burner firing normally, shut off the manual 
valve in the oil supply line and time the interval for the 
oil solenoid valve to close. Should be 4 sec or less. Check 
with Manufacturer's data. 

(2) If test is okay, open manual oil valve, reset con- 
trols, and refire burner. Observe operation. 

G. Oil or Gas — Electric Type With Proven Pilot 
Flame Detection 

(1) With burner in off cycle, manually shut off the 
fuel to the main burner and to the pilot burner. 

(2) Operate the necessary control to start the main 
burner. 

(3) After the prepurge period the pilot assembly will 
be energized, but, because no flame is detected, the auto- 
matic pilot valve will shut off in about 10 sec, and the 
main automatic fuel valve will not be energized. 

(4) If test is okay, open manual valve to pilot and 
reset controls. Test main burner for flame detection. 

(5) Test gas as per I.D. 

(6) Test oil as per I.F. 

H. Pilot Turndown Test 

(1) This test is required to prove that the main auto- 
matic fuel valve cannot be energized when the pilot flame 
is in a condition such that the main burner cannot be ignited 
safely. 

(2) If this condition exists, the flame detection device 
must be adjusted to function properly. 

(3) Consult the Manufacturer's instructions for mak- 
ing this test since each device may require different 
procedures. 



76 



2011a SECTION VI 



L Reference to ASMECSD-1. ASMECSD-1 contains 
specific requirements regarding the controls to be included 
in the fuel train, the timing of their operation, and the 
resulting action that must be achieved. 

II. COMBUSTION EFFICIENCY TESTS 

A combustion efficiency test should be made on each 
fuel burning unit at least once each year (except on gas- 
fired units with nonadjustable secondary air; on these units 
only the draft and stack temperature need be checked). 
More frequent tests should be made on large units and on 
boilers burning preheated oil. Where burners have variable 
firing rates, the efficiency should be checked at the differ- 
ent rates. 

A. Oil Burners 

(1) Measure the over-the-fire draft and compare to 
that recommended by the burner manufacturer. Adjust sec- 
ondary air as required. This reading should range from 
0.02 in. (0.005 kPa) to 0.05 in. (0.012 kPa) of water nega- 
tive pressure for natural or induced draft installations up 
to 15 gal/hr (57 1/hr). Readings for forced draft installations 
will be somewhat higher and will be positive pressure 
readings. If necessary, a small hole may be drilled in the 
firebox door to accommodate the draft gage. On forced 
draft units, the hole should be plugged when not in use. 

(2) Following Manufacturer's instructions, use a 
smoke-measuring instrument to obtain a smoke reading. 
No unit should be allowed to operate with a smoke density 
in violation of local ordinances. Air adjustments, nozzle 
condition, nozzle location, combustion chamber size, and 
air leakage all affect the combustion of fuel. 

(3) Using the C0 2 analyzer, take a reading in the 
breeching ahead of any openings (barometric dampers, 
cleanouts, etc.). A small hole may be drilled for this pur- 
pose. The theoretical maximum C0 2 ranges from 15% for 
No. 1 and No. 2 oil to 16.5% for No. 6 oil. Actual readings 
should range from 9% to 12% for light oil and from 10% 
to 14% for heavy oil. Adjustments should be made to 
provide the highest C0 2 reading without smoke. Reduced 
secondary air resulting from a dirty fan or a change in 
barometric conditions may cause smoking at the higher 
C0 2 readings. 

(4) Measure the stack temperature at the same point 
that the C0 2 readings were taken. Subtract the room tem- 
perature from this reading. The result will be the net stack 
temperature. The net temperature should range from 400°F 
(204°C) to 600°F (316°C). About 500°F (260°C) is desir- 
able for modern units designed to burn oil. Units converted 
from coal will run somewhat higher. Low stack tempera- 
tures cause condensation and deterioration of the brick- 
work, whereas high stack temperatures indicate that the 
heat of combustion is not being absorbed by the heat trans- 
fer surfaces of the boiler. Insufficient draft may cause low 



stack temperature and poor combustion, whereas excess 
draft can result in high stack temperature. The result in 
either case is a loss in boiler efficiency. 

(5) After the tests are made in the order listed above, 
adjustments should be made to bring the readings within the 
proper range; however, do not sacrifice one measurement to 
improve another beyond practical limits. After correcting 
one reading, recheck the others to determine that they are 
still within the proper range. The percent C0 2 draft, smoke 
density, and stack temperature should be regulated to pro- 
vide the best overall safe boiler efficiency. 

B, Gas Burners 

(1) Measure the over-the-fire draft and compare to 
that recommended by the burner manufacturer. Adjust sec- 
ondary air as required. This reading should range from 
0.02 in. to 0.05 in. water (0.005 kPa to 0.012 kPa) negative 
pressure for natural or induced draft installations. Readings 
for forced draft installations will be somewhat higher and 
will be positive pressure readings. If necessary, a small 
hole may be drilled in the firebox door to accommodate 
the draft gage. On forced draft units, the hole should be 
plugged when not in use. 

(2) Using the C0 2 analyzer, take a reading in the 
breeching ahead of any openings (barometric dampers, 
cleanouts, etc.). A small hole may be drilled for this pur- 
pose. The theoretical maximum C0 2 for natural gas is 
approximately 12%, Actual readings should range from 
7% to 10%, depending on the amount of excess combustion 
air. Adjustments should be made to provide the highest 
C0 2 reading while maintaining proper flame color and 
shape. This test is not required for boilers with nonadjust- 
able secondary air inlets and draft hood. 

(3) Measure the stack temperature at the same point 
that the C0 2 readings were taken. Subtract the room tem- 
perature from this reading. The result will be the net stack 
temperature. This should range from 400°F to 600°F. 
About 500°F is desirable for modern units designed to 
burn gas. Units converted from other fuels may run higher. 
Low stack temperature causes condensation and deteriora- 
tion of the brickwork, whereas high stack temperature indi- 
cates that the heat of combustion is not being absorbed by 
the heat transfer surfaces of the boiler. Insufficient draft 
may cause low stack temperature and poor combustion, 
whereas excess draft can result in high stack temperature. 
Both will cause a loss in boiler efficiency. If problems are 
encountered with boilers having nonadjustable secondary 
air inlets and draft hood, the manufacturer should be 
consulted. 

(4) After the test is made in the order listed above, 
make adjustments to bring the readings within the proper 
range; however, do not sacrifice one measurement to 
improve another beyond practical limits. After correcting 
one reading, recheck the others to determine that they are 
still within the proper range. The draft, percent C0 2 , and 



77 



2011a SECTION VI 



stack temperature should be regulated to provide the best 
overall safe boiler efficiency. 

(5) Carbon monoxide (CO) readings should also be 
obtained during the above test. The maximum amount of 
CO allowed is usually 0.04%. This can be obtained using 
direct reading instruments or alarm type instruments that 
function when the maximum CO is reached. Excessive CO 
leaking from the flue system is dangerous and can cause 
death. 

C. Draft Measurements at the Boiler Breeching. In 

order that the accuracy of the draft measurement may be 
checked, an additional reading may be taken at the 
breeching, on the furnace side of any draft regulators, 
cleanouts, etc. This reading will probably range from 
0.07 in. to 0.10 in. (1.8 mm to 2.5 mm) of water negative 
pressure for natural or induced draft installations. For 
forced draft units, the reading will be less than the over-the- 
fire draft, but should be a positive pressure. Both readings 
should be recorded when the heat transfer surfaces are 
clean and the boiler properly adjusted. They can then be 
compared to later periodic readings. If the readings at the 
breeching remained constant, for example, and the over- 
the-fire reading changed, this would indicate a possible 
inaccuracy in the over-the-fire measurement. If the differ- 
ence between the two readings increased, this would indi- 
cate a soot buildup or other restriction in the combustion 
chamber or gas passages (tubes). This is very helpful in 
determining the need for cleaning the heat transfer surfaces 
of the boiler. This measurement is primarily used to check 
oil burning units and large forced draft gas-fired units. 



IIL LIMIT CONTROL TESTS 

All limit controls should be tested periodically. Here 
again, the Manufacturer's data should be consulted for 
complete details. A test gage should be used to check the 
operation of all pressure controls. In general, the tests are 
to be performed as follows. 

A. High-Limit Steam Pressure Control. Disconnect 
power to boiler controls and place a test lead across the 
contacts of the operating steam pressure controller. Check 
setting of high-limit control. It should be higher than 
operating control, but lower than 15 psi (100 kPa). Restore 
power to controls and fire boiler. Allow boilers to fire 
until steam pressure reaches setting of high-limit control. 
Control should operate at this point, shutting off flow of 
fuel to burner. If test is O.K., disconnect power and remove 
the test lead. Reset high-limit control, and fire boiler. 
Observe boiler for proper operation. 

B. Draft-Limit Control. This control must be tested to 
determine that it will shut down the burner when the over- 
the-fire draft falls below the minimum allowable of 0.02 in. 



water (0.005 kPa). Using a draft gage to measure the over- 
the-fire draft, restrict the flow of secondary air until draft 
drops slightly below 0.02 in. water (0.005 kPa). At this 
point, the burner should cut off. Care should be exercised 
so as not to shut off the secondary air completely during 
this test. If test is okay, reset controls and retire boiler. If 
control does not shut off burner, adjust or replace as 
required. On natural or induced draft installations, the draft 
gage will be measuring a negative pressure difference, the 
pressure over the fire being less than room pressure, 
whereas for forced draft installations, the gage will be 
measuring a positive pressure. 

C. Boiler Room Temperature-Limit Control. Some 
installations have a temperature-limit control or other 
device that will shut down the burner in the event of a rise 
in temperature in the vicinity of the boiler. These devices 
protect against flashbacks, oil fires, and overheated boilers. 
If possible, trip device manually while burner is firing. 
Burner should shut down. If test is okay, reset device, refire 
boiler, and check operation. If device cannot be operated 
manually, shut down boiler, disconnect power, and open 
control circuit through device. Attempt to refire boiler. 
Burner should not operate. If test is okay, reconnect circuit, 
fire boiler, and check operation. 

D. Electrical Limit Controls. All electrical current 
limiting or overload devices, including fuses and thermal 
overload elements, should be inspected to determine that 
they are properly sized and in good condition. Switches, 
starters, and relays should be checked for proper operation. 

E. Low Gas Pressure Control. Check Manufacturer's 
data to determine minimum allowable operating gas pres- 
sure to burner. Connect manometer on gas manifold just 
ahead of burner. With burner firing normally, close main 
gascock gradually until pressure drops to minimum speci- 
fied by manufacturer. Burner should shut off. If test is 
okay, reset controls, refire boiler, and check operation. 

F. High Gas Pressure Control. (If used — for systems 
where high-pressure gas, over 1 psi (7 kPa), is furnished 
upstream of regulator.) Check Manufacturer's instructions 
for maximum operating pressure of the burner. Connect 
manometer on gas manifold just downstream of pressure 
regulator. With burner shut down, adjust pressure regulator 
to provide pressure slightly in excess of this maximum 
pressure. Operate burner controller to call for heat; burner 
should not start. If test is okay, readjust pressure regulator 
to normal burner operating pressure, and check burner 
operation. 

G. Oil Pressure Supervisory Switch. (If used — on 
installation with separate pump set.) Manually turn down 
burner cock to burner until oil pressure drops below mini- 
mum recommended by the burner manufacturer. Burner 



78 



2011a SECTION VI 



should shut off. If test is okay, reset firing cock, restart 
burner, and check operation. 

H. Air Pressure Supervisory Switch. (If used.) Check 
Manufacturer's instructions for minimum static pressure 
required. Adjust air damper to decrease air to burner; burner 
should shut off when pressure drops below minimum rec- 
ommended air pressure. If test is okay, readjust to desired 
air pressure, and check operation of the burner. 

I. Emergency Disconnect Switch. All boilers should 
be equipped with an emergency disconnect switch located 
outside the boiler room door. 

(1) For atmospheric-gas burners, and oil burners 
where the fan is on a common shaft with the oil pump, 
the complete burner and controls should be shut off. 

(2) For power burners with detached auxiliaries, only 
the fuel input supply to the firebox need be shut off. 

(3) To test, throw switch to "Off position while the 
boiler is operating. This should kill all power to the controls 
[see para. 1.(1)] or the fuel supply [see para. 1.(2)]. If the 
test is okay restore switch, retire boiler, and observe for 
proper operation. On units with program controls, it may 
be necessary to completely recycle before refiring. 



IV. SAFETY VALVE TESTS (STEAM 
BOILERS) 

As precautionary measures, all personnel concerned with 
conducting a pop or capacity test should be briefed on 
the location of all shutdown controls in the event of an 
emergency, and there should be at least two people present. 
Care should be taken to protect those present from escaping 
steam. 

A. Try Lever Test. Every 30 days that the boiler is in 
operation or after any period of inactivity a try lever test 
should be performed as follows: with the boiler under a 
minimum of 5 psi (35 kPa) pressure, lift the try lever on 
the safety valve to the wide open position and allow steam 
to be discharged for 5 sec to 10 sec. Release the try lever 
and allow the spring to snap the disk to the closed position. 
If the valve simmers, operate the try lever two or three times 
to allow the disk to seat properly. If the valve continues to 
simmer, it must be replaced or repaired by an authorized 
representative of the manufacturer. Inspect the valve for 
evidence of scale or encrustation within the body. Do not 
disassemble valve or attempt to adjust the spring setting. 
It is advisable to have a chain attached to the try lever of 
the valve to facilitate this test and allow it to be conducted 
in a safe manner from the floor. The date of this test should 
be entered into the boiler log book. 

B. Pop Test. A pop test of a safety valve is conducted 
to determine that the valve will open under boiler pressure 



within the allowable tolerances. It should be conducted 
annually, preferably at the beginning of the heating season 
if the boiler is used only for space heating purposes. Hydro- 
static testing (using water) is not to be considered as an 
acceptable test to check safety valve opening pressure. A 
recommended procedure is as follows. 

(J) Establish necessary trial conditions at the particu- 
lar location. Where necessary, provide adequately sup- 
ported temporary piping from the valve discharge to a 
safe location outside the boiler room. In some installations 
temporary ventilation may dispose of the steam vapor satis- 
factorily. Review preparation for test with personnel 
involved. All such tests should have at least two people 
present. 

(2) Install temporary calibrated test pressure gage to 
check accuracy of boiler gage. 

(3) Isolate the boiler by shutting the stop valves in 
the steam supply and condensate return piping. 

(4) Temporarily place jumper leads across the appro- 
priate terminals on the operating control to demonstrate 
the ability of the high-limit pressure control to function 
properly. After this has been checked, also place another 
set of jumper leads across the high-limit pressure control 
terminals to permit continuous operation of the burner. 

(5) The safety valve should pop open at an acceptable 
pressure, i.e., 15 psi (100 kPa) ±2 psi (±14 kPa). A sim- 
mering action will ordinarily be noticed shortly before the 
valve pops to the open position. 

(6) If the valve does not open in the 13 psi (90 kPa) 
to 17 psi (117 kPa) range, it should be replaced. It is not 
necessarily a dangerous situation if the valve opens below 
13 psi (90 kPa), but it could indicate a weakening of the 
spring, improper setting of the spring, etc. If the valve does 
not open at 17 psi (117 kPa), shut off the burner and 
dissipate the steam to the system by slowly opening the 
supply valve. 

(7) If the valve pops open at an acceptable pressure, 
immediately remove the jumper leads from the high-limit 
pressure control The burner main flame should cut off as 
soon as the jumper leads are removed. 

(8) The safety valve will stay open until the pressure 
drops sufficiently in the boiler to allow it to close, usually 
2 psi (14 kPa) to 4 psi (28 kPa) below the opening pressure. 
This pressure drop (blowdown) is usually indicated on the 
safety valve nameplate. 

(9) Relieve the higher pressure steam to the rest of 
the system by slowly opening the steam supply valve. 
After the boiler and supply piping pressures have become 
equalized, open the return valve. 

(10) Remove the jumper leads from the operating 
control and check to make certain that it functions properly. 
This is best done by allowing it to cycle the burner on and 
off at least once. 



79 



2011a SECTION VI 



(11) Enter the necessary test data into the boiler 
log book. 

C. Capacity Test 

(.1) Capacity tests should be performed on safety 
valves on all new boiler installations where there is exten- 
sive piping on the safety valve discharge. They should 
also be made on existing boiler installations when any 
modification is made that affects the steam generating 
capacity of the boiler such as changing the size of the 
burner, the rate of fuel flow, or the grade or type of fuel 
not previously fired, or if firing rate cannot be determined. 

(2) AH such tests should be made with at least two 
people present. 

(3) Establish necessary general trial conditions at the 
particular location. Where necessary, provide adequately 
supported temporary piping from the safety valve discharge 
to a safe location outside the boiler room. In some installa- 
tions, temporary ventilation may dispose of the steam vapor 
satisfactorily. Review preparation for test with personnel 
involved. 

(4) A calibrated test gage shall be temporarily 
installed to check accuracy of the boiler pressure gage 
during all phases of these tests. 

(5) Isolate the boiler by shutting the stop valves in 
the supply and return piping for this boiler. The water 
feeder should be able to operate if it is necessary to do so 
during the test. It may be necessary to manually feed 1 in. 
(25 mm) or 2 in. (50 mm) of water to the boiler to prevent 
the low- water fuel cutoff from shutting down the burner. 

(6) Set burner to operate at its maximum capacity, 
making sure that combustion is complete with proper over- 
fire draft. 

(7) When the operating control has shut off the 
burner, place jumper leads across its terminals to switch 
control to the high-pressure cutout. 

(8) When this has demonstrated its ability to shut off 
the burner, place another set of jumper leads across its 
terminals, reset it if it has this feature, and allow the burner 
to continue running without control. 

(9) The safety valve should pop open at the set pres- 
sure [15 psi (103 kPa)] ±2 psi (±14 kPa) or within the 
range of 13 psi (90 kPa) to 17 psi (117 kPa). If it opens 
below 13 psi (90 kPa) or does not open at 17 psi (1 17 kPa), 
it should be replaced. 

(10) If the safety valve opens within this range, con- 
tinue running the burner. If the pressure continues to rise, 
allow it to reach a maximum and hold it for a minimum 
of 30 sec. The maximum reached should not exceed 20 psi 
(140 kPa). 

(77) If the pressure continues to rise above 20 psi 
(137 kPa), the burner should be stopped by removing the 
jumper leads from the high-pressure cutout. The safety 
valve should be replaced by one that demonstrates its abil- 
ity to maintain a pressure of not more than 20 psi in the 
boiler. 



(12) If the safety valve does maintain a maximum 
pressure of 20 psi (140 kPa) or below, the burner should be 
stopped by removing the test leads from the high-pressure 
cutout. Observe the pressure at which the safety valve 
closes. Replace the valve if it does not close within 2 psi 
(14 kPa) to 4 psi (28 kPa) of opening pressure. 

(13) Remove the jumper leads from the operating 
control and let the burner cycle once to determine that it 
is functioning properly. 

(14) Enter all. pertinent data in boiler room log: date, 
time, personnel present, opening pressure, maximum pres- 
sure, closing pressure, and any other pertinent data or 
information. 

V. SAFETY RELIEF VALVE TEST 
(WATER BOILERS) 

A. Try Lever Test 

(1) Frequency. A try lever test of the safety relief 
valve should be conducted every 30 days during the heating 
season, after any prolonged period of inactivity, and prior 
to the annual safety relief valve test. 

(2) Procedure 

(a) Check the safety relief valve discharge piping 
to determine that it is properly installed and supported. 

(b) Check and log the system operating pressure 
and temperature. 

(c) Lift the try lever on the safety relief valve to 
the full open position and hold it for at least 5 sec or until 
clean water is discharged. 

(d) Release the try lever and allow the spring to 
snap to the closed position. If the valve leaks, operate the 
try lever two or three times to clear the seat of any foreign 
matter that is preventing proper seating. As safety relief 
valves are normally piped to the floor or near a floor drain, 
it may take some time to determine if the valve has shut 
completely. 

(e) If the safety relief valve continues to leak, it 
must be replaced before the boiler is returned to operation. 

(f) Check that system operating pressure and tem- 
perature have returned to normal. 

(g) Check again to assure the safety relief valve 
has closed completely and is not leaking. 

B. Safety Relief Valve Test 

(1) Frequency. A safety relief valve test should be 
conducted every twelve months. 

(2) Procedure. The following test should be con- 
ducted with at least two people present. The personnel 
conducting this test should review the test procedures and 
determine if any special conditions exist. 

(a) Check that safety relief valve discharge piping 
is properly installed and supported. 

(b) With the circulating equipment in operation, 
turn the fuel burning equipment off and allow the boiler 
water to reach a temperature approximately 80% to 85% 
of its normal operating temperature. Normally this will be 
between 140°F (60°C) and 150°F (66°C). 



80 



2011a SECTION VI 



(c) After the boiler water temperature has been 
reduced, turn off the water circulating equipment. On some 
boilers, it may be necessary to jumper out the circulating 
pump flow switch to allow the burner to come on during 
the test. 

CAUTION: On boilers requiring water flow to prevent damage to 
the boiler, do not jumper out the flow switch. It may be necessary 
to isolate the boiler and hydrostatically test the safety relief valve or 
have the safety relief valve removed and sent to a nationally recog- 
nized testing agency for testing. 

(d) Turn off the system supply and return valves, 
and isolate the expansion tank from the boiler. 

(e) Install a calibrated test gage. 

(f) After assuring that all personnel are clear of the 
safety relief valve discharge piping, turn on the fuel burning 
equipment. 

CAUTION: On boilers with small water storage capacity, very little 
heat will be required to raise the pressure to the opening pressure 
of the safety relief valve. 

(g) If the temperature at the start of the test is 
below the normal operating temperature, as recommended 
in (b), it will not be necessary to change or jumper out the 
operating or high limit temperature controls. If the water 
temperature is at normal operating temperature, it may be 
necessary to readjust these limits upward to allow the 
burner to remain on long enough to reach the opening 
pressure of the safety relief valve. 

(h) The safety relief valve should open 1 within an 
acceptable range above or below the set point. This range 

1 In the absence of flow metering equipment, opening of the valve can 
be considered to have been achieved when a steady fast drip or stream 
of approximately 40 cc/min is observed at the discharge opening of 
the valve. 



is ±3 psi (±20.6 kPa) for valves set to open at or below 
60 psig (400 kPa), and ±5% of set pressure for pressures 
above 60 psig (400 kPa). 

(i) There will be a discernible point when the valve 
opens and provides water flow with no significant rise in 
pressure. At this point log the pressure and turn off the 
fuel burning equipment. 

(j) If the safety relief valve does not open at the 
set pressure plus the allowable tolerance, shut off the fuel 
burning equipment and do not operate the boiler until the 
safety relief valve has been replaced. 

(k) If the safety relief valve opens at a pressure 
below the allowable tolerance, this is not necessarily a 
dangerous condition but it can indicate a deteriorating con- 
dition or improper spring setting. The valve should be 
replaced. 

(I) After the safety relief valve has closed, open 
the valve to the expansion tank, the system return line, and 
the supply line to allow the boiler to return to its normal 
operating pressure. 

(m) If applicable, remove the flow switch jumper 
and return the operating and high limit temperature controls 
to normal. 

(n) Start the water circulating equipment. 

(o) Start the fuel burning equipment. Observe the 
pressure and temperature until the system returns to normal 
operating conditions and the operating control has cycled 
the burner on and off at least once. 

(p) Check again to assure that the safety relief 
valve is not leaking. 



81 



2011a SECTION VI 



M MANDATORY APPENDIX II 

SUBMITTAL OF TECHNICAL INQUIRIES TO THE 
BOILER AND PRESSURE VESSEL COMMITTEE 



This material has been moved to the front matter and 
shall be considered as mandatory. 



82 



2011a SECTION VI 



MANDATORY APPENDIX III 
STANDARD UNITS FOR USE IN EQUATIONS 



TABLE III-l 
STANDARD UNITS FOR USE IN EQUATIONS 



Quantity 



U.S. Customary Units 



SI Units 



Linear dimensions (e.g., length/ height, thickness, radius, diameter) 

Area 

Volume 

Section modulus 

Moment of inertia of section 

Mass (weight) 

Force (load) 

Bending moment 

Pressure, stress, stress intensity, and modulus of elasticity 

Energy (e.g., Charpy impact values) 

Temperature 

Absolute temperature 

Fracture toughness 

Angle 

Boiler capacity 



inches (in.) 

square inches (in. 2 ) 

cubic inches (in. 3 ) 

cubic inches (in. 3 ) 

inches 4 (in. 4 ) 

pounds mass (Ibm) 

pounds force (Ibf) 

inch-pounds (in. -lb) 

pounds per square inch (psi) 

foot-pounds (ft-lb) 

degrees Fahrenheit (°F) 

Rankine (R) __ 

ksi square root inches (ksi^/in.) 

degrees or radians 

Btu/hr 



millimeters (mm) 

square millimeters (mm 2 ) 

cubic millimeters (mm 3 ) 

cubic millimeters (mm 3 ) 

millimeters 4 (mm 4 ) 

kilograms (kg) 

newtons (l\i) 

newton-millimeters (N-mm) 

megapascals (MPa) 

joules (J) 

degrees Celsius (°C) 

kelvin (K) 

MPa square root meters (MPaTm) 

degrees or radians 

watts (W) 



83 



2011a SECTION VI 



NONMANDATORY APPENDIX 



NONMANDATORY APPENDIX A 

GUIDANCE FOR THE USE OF U.S. CUSTOMARY AND 

SI UNITS IN THE ASME BOILER AND PRESSURE 

VESSEL CODE 



A-l 



USE OF UNITS IN EQUATIONS 



The equations in this Nonmandatory Appendix are suit- 
able for use with either the U.S. Customary or the SI units 
provided in Mandatory Appendix III, or with the units 
provided in the nomenclature associated with that equation. 
It is the responsibility of the individual and organization 
performing the calculations to ensure that appropriate units 
are used. Either U.S. Customary or SI units may be used 
as a consistent set. When necessary to convert from one 
system of units to another, the units shall be converted to 
at least three significant figures for use in calculations and 
other aspects of construction. 



A-2 GUIDELINES USED TO DEVELOP 

SI EQUIVALENTS 

The following guidelines were used to develop SI 
equivalents: 

(a) SI units are placed in parentheses after the U.S. 
Customary units in the text. 

(b) In general, separate SI tables are provided if interpo- 
lation is expected. The table designation (e.g., table 
number) is the same for both the U.S. Customary and 
SI tables, with the addition of suffix "M" to the designator 
for the SI table, if a separate table is provided. In the text, 
references to a table use only the primary table number 
(i.e., without the "M"). For some small tables, where inter- 
polation is not required, SI units are placed in parentheses 
after the U.S. Customary unit. 

(c) Separate SI versions of graphical information 
(charts) are provided, except that if both axes are dimen- 
sionless, a single figure (chart) is used. 



(d) In most cases, conversions of units in the text were 
done using hard SI conversion practices, with some soft 
conversions on a case-by-case basis, as appropriate. This 
was implemented by rounding the SI values to the number 
of significant figures of implied precision in the existing 
U.S. Customary units. For example, 3,000 psi has an 
implied precision of one significant figure. Therefore, the 
conversion to SI units would typically be to 20 000 kPa. 
This is a difference of about 3% from the "exact" or soft 
conversion of 20 684.27 kPa. However, the precision of 
the conversion was determined by the Committee on a 
case-by-case basis. More significant digits were included 
in the SI equivalent if there was any question. The values 
of allowable stress in Section II, Part D generally include 
three significant figures. 

(e) Minimum thickness and radius values that are 
expressed in fractions of an inch were generally converted 
according to the following table: 





Proposed 




Fraction, in. 


SI Conversion, mm 


Difference, % 


i/ 


0.8 


-0.8 


%* 


1.2 


-0.8 


K 


1.5 


5.5 


3 / 32 


2.5 


-5.0 


\ 


3 


5.5 


%2 


4 


-0.8 


\ 


5 


-5.0 


%. 


5.5 


1.0 


% 


6 


5.5 


X, 


8 


-0.8 


% 


10 


-5.0 



84 



2011a SECTION VI 



Proposed 
Fraction, in. SI Conversion, mm 


Difference, 


% 


(g) For nominal pipe sizes, 
were used: 

U.S. 


the following 
U.S. 


relationships 


\ 11 


1.0 






\ 13 
\ 14 
5 / 8 16 


-2.4 

2.0 

-0.8 




Customary 
Practice 


SI Practice 


Customary 
Practice 


SI Practice 


% 17 


2.6 




NPS \ 


DN6 


NPS 20 


DN500 


% 19 


0.3 




NPS % 


DN8 


NPS 22 


DN550 


% 22 


1.0 




NPS \ 


DN 10 


NPS 24 


DN600 


1 25 


1.6 




nps y 2 


DN 15 


NPS 26 


DN650 








NPS 3 4 


DN20 


NPS 28 


DN700 








NPS 1 


DN 25 


NPS 30 


DN750 








NPS \\ 


DN32 


NPS 32 


DN 800 








NPS l l / 2 


DN40 


NPS 34 


DN 850 








NPS 2 


DN50 


NPS 36 


DN 900 


(f) For nominal sizes that are in even increments of 
inches, even multiples of 25 mm were generally used. 
Intermediate values were interpolated rather than con- 


NPS 2 l / 2 
NPS 3 
NPS 3% 
NPS 4 


DN65 
DN80 
DN90 
DN 100 


NPS 38 
NPS 40 
NPS 42 
NPS 44 


DN950 
DN 1000 
DN 1050 
DN 1100 


verting and rounding to the nearest mm. See examples in 
the following table. [Note that this table does not apply to 
nominal pipe sizes (NPS), which are covered below.] 


NPS 5 
NPS 6 
NPS 8 
NPS 10 


DN 125 
DN 150 
DN200 
DN250 


NPS 46 
NPS 48 
NPS 50 
NPS 52 


DN 1150 
DN 1200 
DN 1250 
DN 1300 








NPS 12 


DN 300 


NPS 54 


DN 1350 








NPS 14 


DN 350 


NPS 56 


DN 1400 


Size, in. Size, m 


im 




NPS 16 
NPS 18 


DN400 
DN450 


NPS 58 
NPS 60 


DN 1450 




DN 1500 



\\ 

2 

2% 
2\ 

3 

3fc 

4 
4)* 

5 

6 

8 
12 
18 
24 
36 
40 
54 
60 
72 



25 


29 


32 


38 


50 


57 


64 


75 


89 


100 


114 


125 


150 


200 


300 


450 


600 


900 


1000 


1350 


1500 


1800 



(h) Areas in square inches (in. 2 ) were converted to 
square mm (mm 2 ) and areas in square feet (ft 2 ) were con- 
verted to square meters (m 2 ). See examples in the follow- 
ing table: 



Area (U.S. Customary) 



Area (SI) 



1 in. 2 


650 mm 2 


6 in. 2 


4 000 mm 2 


10 in. 2 


6 500 mm 2 


5 ft 2 


0.5 m 2 



(i) Volumes in cubic inches (in. 3 ) were converted to 
cubic mm (mm 3 ) and volumes in cubic feet (ft 3 ) were 
converted to cubic meters (m 3 ). See examples in the follow- 
ing table: 



Volume (U.S. Customary) 



1 in. : 



Volume (SI) 



6in. J 

10 in. 3 

5 ft 3 



16 000 mm 3 

100 000 mm 3 

160 000 mm 3 

0.14 m 3 



Size or Length, 
ft 

3 

5 

200 



Size or Length, m 

1 

1.5 
60 



(j) Although the pressure should always be in MPa for 
calculations, there are cases where other units are used in 
the text. For example, kPa is used for small pressures. 
Also, rounding was to one significant figure (two at the 
most) in most cases. See examples in the following table. 



85 



2011a SECTION VI 



(Note that 14.7 psi converts to 101 kPa, while 15 psi 
converts to 100 kPa. While this may seem at first glance 
to be an anomaly, it is consistent with the rounding 



philosophy.) 




Pressure (U.S. Customary) 


Pressure (SI) 


0.5 psi 


3 kPa 


2 psi 


15 kPa 


3 psi 


20kPa 


10 psi 


70 kPa 


1 4.7 psi 


101 kPa 


15 psi 


100 kPa 


30 psi 


200 kPa 


50 psi 


350 kPa 


100 psi 


700 kPa 


150 psi 


1 MPa 


200 psi 


1.5 MPa 


250 psi 


1.7 MPa 


300 psi 


2 MPa 


350 psi 


2.5 MPa 


400 psi 


3 MPa 


500 psi 


3.5 MPa 


600 psi 


4 MPa 


1,200 psi 


8 MPa 


1,500 psi 


10 MPa 



(k) Material properties that are expressed in psi or ksi 
(e.g., allowable stress, yield and tensile strength, elastic 
modulus) were generally converted to MPa to three sig- 
nificant figures. See example in the following table: 



Strength (U.S. Customary) 
95,000 psi 



Strength (SI) 
655 MPa 



(I) In most cases, temperatures (e.g., for PWHT) were 
rounded to the nearest 5°C. Depending on the implied 
precision of the temperature, some were rounded to the 
nearest 1°C or 10°C or even 25°C. Temperatures colder 
than 0°F (negative values) were generally rounded to the 
nearest 1°C. The examples in the table below were created 
by rounding to the nearest 5°C, with one exception: 



Temperature, °F 

70 
100 
120 
150 
200 
250 
300 
350 
400 
450 
500 
550 
600 
650 
700 
750 
800 
850 
900 



Temperature, °C 

20 

38 

50 

65 

95 
120 
150 
175 
205 
230 
260 
290 
315 
345 
370 
400 
425 
455 
480 



Temperature, °F 


Temperature, °C 


925 


495 


950 


510 


1,000 


540 


1,050 


565 


1,100 


595 


1,150 


620 


1,200 


650 


1,250 


675 


1,800 


980 


1,900 


1 040 


2,000 


1095 


2,050 


1 120 



A-3 



SOFT CONVERSION FACTORS 



The following table of "soft" conversion factors is pro- 
vided for convenience. Multiply the U.S. Customary value 
by the factor given to obtain the SI value. Similarly, divide 
the SI value by the factor given to obtain the U.S. 
Customary value. In most cases it is appropriate to round 
the answer to three significant figures. 



U.S. 
















Customary 


mm 


SI 


Factor 




Notes 


in. 


25.4 






ft 


m 




0.3048 










. 

inr 


mm 




645.16 










ft 2 


m 2 




0.09290304 










in. 3 


mm 




16,387.064 










ft 3 


m 3 




0.02831685 










U.S. gal. 


m 3 




0.003785412 










U.S. gal. 


liters 




3.785412 










psi 


MPa 




0.0068948 


Used 


exclusively in 




(N/mm 2 ) 




equations 


psi 


kPa 




6.894757 


Used 


only in text 










and for nameplate 


psi 


bar 




0.06894757 






ft-lb 


J 




1.355818 






°F 


°C 




% x (°F - 32) 


Not for tt 


jm 


perature 



op 



difference 
For temperature 
differences only 



R 


K 


% 


Absolute temperature 


lbm 


kg 


0.4535924 




lbf 


N 


4.448222 




in-lb 


Nmm 


112.98484 


Use exclusively in 
equations 


ft-lb 


N-m 


1.3558181 


Use only in text 


ksiVin. 


MPaVm 


1.0988434 




Btu/hr 


W 


0.2930711 


Use for boiler rating 
and heat transfer 


lb/ft 3 


kg/m 3 


16.018463 





86 



2011a SECTION VI 



INDEX 



Additional boiler, cutting in of, 7.04, 8.04 
Air, for pneumatically operated controls, 5.04G 
Air eliminators, 3.04 
Alkalinity test, 9.1 IB 

Baffling, inspection of, 

For hot water boiler, 8.09D(19) 
For steam boiler, 7.09D(19) 
Blowdown, 7.05C, 9.09 
Blowoff valves, 3.33A 
Boiler room facilities, general, 6.01 
Boilers 

Cast iron, 2.03 

Classification of, 2.01 

Determination of water containing capacity, 9.11 A 

Horizontal sectional, cast iron, 2.03A 

Maintenance of, 7.07, 8.07 

One-piece, cast iron, 2.03C 

Removal from service, steam, 7.06 

Repairs to, 

Hot water, 8.08 

Steam, 7.08 
Starting, 

Hot water, 8.01, 8.02 

Steam, 7.01,7.02 
Steel, 2.02 

Firebox, Figs. 2.02A - 2.02A-5, 2.02A(3) 

Vertical firetube boiler, Fig. 2.02A-1, 2.02A(1) 

Maintenance, 7.07K 

Scotch type, 2.02A(2) 

Horizontal return tube boiler, Fig. 2.02A-6, 2.02A(4) 
Suspended, 7.09D(21) 
Treatment, 9.08C 
Vertical sectional, 2.03B 
Water troubles, 9.05 

Corrosion, 9.05A 

Foaming, 9.05D 

Metal embrittlement, 9.05C 

Scale deposits, 9.05B 
Watertube, 2.02B 
Burning equipment, 
Coal, 5.03 
Gas, 5.01 

Maintenance, 7.07F 
Oil, 5.02 



Chemicals, 9.06, 9.07 

Handling, 9.1 1C 

Mixing, 9. 11C 
Circulators, 3.07 
Cleaning, 

Maintenance, 8.07A 

New hot water boilers, 8.01 A 

New steam boiler, 7.01 A 

Removed from service, 7.06B, 8.06B 
Coal, 

Anthracite, 4.04A 

Bituminous, 4.04B 

Burning equipment, 5.03 
Chain grate, Fig. 5.03-3 
Spreader, Fig. 5.03-2 
Underfeed, Fig. 5.03-1 
Condensate, return pumps and loop, 3.05, Fig. 3.05, 7.07O 
Condensation, 7.03, 8.03 
Connections, 

Drain, 6.05B 

Water, 6.05A 
Continuous treatment, 9.08B 
Controls, 

Electrically operated, 5.04F 

Limiting, 5.04B, see Tests 

Operating, 5.04A 

Pneumatically operated, 5.04G 

Programming of, 5.04D 

Safety, 5.04C 

Spare parts, 5.04E 

Venting, 5.04H 
Corrosion, 7.06C, 7.07D, 7.09D(8), 8.06C, 8.07D, 8.09D(8), 
9.05A 

Diagrams, 6. 09 A 
Drain connections, 6.05B 
Drain valve, 3.33B 
Drawings, 6. 09 A 

Electricity, 4.05 

Embrittlement, 9.05C 

Emergency Disconnect Service, Exhibit C, 1II.I 

Expansion tanks, 3.08 

External treatment, 9. 08 A 

Feeders, 9,10 



87 



2011a SECTION VI 



Feedwater connections, 3.30C 

Fire protection, 6.06 

Fire surfaces, inspection of 

Hot water boilers, 8.09D(11) 

Steam boilers, 7.09D(11) 
Flame, safeguards, 7.07H, see Tests 
Freezing, 7.07C 
Fuel oils, 4.03 

Grade number, 

1, 4. 03 A 

2, 4.03B 

4, 4.03C 

5, 4.03D 

6, 4.03E 

Preheating requirements, 4.03F 

Gas, 

Atmosphere, 5.01 A 

Burning equipment, 5.01 

Combination, 5.01 C 

Heating values of, 4.01 

Liquified petroleum (LPG), 4.02 

Natural, manufactured, or mixed, 4.01 

Power, 5.01 B 
Glossary of boiler terms, 1.05 

Fuels, fuel burning equipment, and combustion, 1.05B 

General terms, 1.05 A 

Water treatment terms, 9.12 

Heat, localization of, 7.09D(20), 8.09D(20) 
Hot water boiler, starting, 8.01, 8.02 
Housekeeping, 6.07 
Hydrostatic test, 7.09D(25), 8.09D(25) 

Illustrations, use of, 1 .02 
Inspection, 7.07L, 8.07L 
Log, Exhibits A and B 
Of hot water boilers, 8.09 

During construction, 8.09B 

Initial, 8.09C 

Periodic, of existing boilers, 8.09D 

Point of installation, 8.09C 

Preparation for, 8.09D(1) - 8.09D(3) 
Of steam boilers, 7.09 

During construction, 7.09B 

Initial, 7.09C 

Periodic, of existing boilers, 7.09D 

Point of installation, 7.09C 

Preparation for, 7.09D(1), 7.09D(3) 
Inspector, 7.09D(5), 7.09D(6), 7.09D(26), 8.09D(5), 8.09D(6), 

8.09D(26) 
Insulation, 7.09D(4), 8.09(4) 
Internal treatment, 9.08A 



Ligaments, inspection of 

Hot water boilers, 8.09D(15) 

Steam boilers, 7.09D(15) 
Lighting of boiler room, 6.03 
Limit controls, 7.07L, see Tests 
Liquified petroleum gas (LPG), 4.02 
Log, 6.09B, Exhibit A, Exhibit B 
Low-water fuel cutoffs, 3.02, 3.28, 3.29, 7.05H, 7.07G, 
7.09DQ8), 8.07D(17), 8.07(G) 

Electric probe types, 3.02B, Fig. 3.02B 

Float type, 3.02A, Fig. 3.02A 

Maintenance 

Hot water boilers, 8.07 
Burner maintenance, 8.07F 

Gas, 8.07F(2) 

Oil, 8.07F(1) 
Cast iron, 8.07J 
Circulating pumps, 8.07O 
Cleaning, 8. 07 A 
Draining, 8.07B 
Expansion tanks, 8.07O 
Fire side corrosion, 8.07D 
Flame safeguard, 8.07H 

Electronic, 8.07H(2) 

Thermal, 8.07H(1) 
Freezing, protection against, 8.07C 
Inspection, 8.07L 
Limit control, 8.071 
Low- water fuel cutoff, 8.07G 
Safety relief valves, 8.07E 
Schedule, Exhibit B, 8.07P 
Sealant, 8.07N 
Steel boiler, 8.07K 
Steam boilers, 7.07 

Burner maintenance, 7.07F 

Gas, 7.07F(2) 

Oil, 7.07F(1) 
Cast iron, 7.07J 
Cleaning, 7.07A 

Condensate return system, 7.07O 
Draining, 7.07B 
Fire side corrosion, 7.07D 
Flame safeguard, 7.07H 

Electronic, 7.07H(2) 

Thermal, 7.07H(1) 
Freezing, 7.07C 
Inspection, 7.07L 
Limit control, 7.071 
Low- water fuel cutoff, 7.07G 
Safety valves, 7.07E 
Schedule, Exhibit A, 7.07P 
Sealant, 7.07N 
Steel, 7.07K 



2011a SECTION VI 



Manholes, 7.09D(10) 
Manufacturer's information, 1.03, 6.09 
Metric conversion tables, see Supplement 
Modular boilers, 2.04, 3.36 

New boilers, 
Hot water, 8.01 

Cleaning and filling, 8.01 A 
Steam, 7.01 

Cleaning and filling, 7.01 A 

Oil burning equipment, 5.02 
Air atomizing, 5.02C 
Horizontal rotary cup, 5.02D 
Periodic checks, 7.06E 
Pressure atomizing, 5. 02 A 

High pressure, 5.02A(1) 

Low pressure, 5.02A(2) 
Steam atomizing, 5.02B 
Storage and supply, 3.10 
Oil heaters, 3.34 

Openings, inspection of, 7.09D(10), 8.09D(10) 
Operation, 

Hot water boiler, 8.05 

Check of pressure and temperature, 8. 05 A 

Operating pressure, 8.05C(2) 

Operating temperature, 8.05C(1) 
Steam boiler, 7.05 

Abnormal water loss, 7.05F 

Appearance of rust, 7.05D 

Blowdown, 7.05C 

Low-water cutoff, 7.05H 

Makeup water, 7.05G 

Steaming pressure, 7.05B 

Water level, 7.05A 

Water-line fluctuation, 7.05E 

Piping expansion and contraction, Figs. 3.30-1 - 3.30-4, 3.30A 

Power for electrically operated controls, 5.04F 

Pressure altitude gage, 3.25 

Pressure control, 3.24 

Pressure gages, 3.11 

Pressure, steaming, 7.05B 

Pumps, 

Circulating, 3.07 

Condensate return, 3.05 

Vacuum return, 3.06 

Recordkeeping, 6.09 
Removal of boiler from service, 
Hot water, 8.06 

Cleaning, 8.06B 

Periodic checks, 8.06D 



Procedure, 8. 06 A 

Protection against corrosion, 8.06C 
Steam, 7.06 

Cleaning, 7.06B 

Periodic checks, 7.06E 

Procedure, 7. 06 A 

Protection against corrosion, 7.06C 

Water level, 7.06D 
Repairs, 

Hot water boilers, 8.08 

Inspection of, 8.09D(24) 

Notification, 8.08B 

Precaution, 8.08A 

Safety, 8.08D 

Welding requirements, 8.08C 
Steam boilers, 7.08 

Inspection of, 7.09D(24) 

Notification, 7.08B 

Precautions, 7. 08 A 

Safety, 7.08D 

Welding requirements, 7.08C 
Return pipe connections, Figs. 3.30-3, 3.30-4, 3.30B 
Rust, 7.05D 

Safety of boiler operations, 6.02 

Safety relief valves, 8.07E, 8.09D(22), 3.01B, 3.20 

Tests for water boilers, Exhibit C, V 
Opening, Exhibit C, V.B 
Try lever, Exhibit C, V.A 
Safety valves, 3.01A, 3.20, 7.07E, 7.09D(22) 

Tests for steam boilers, Exhibit C, IV 
Capacity, Exhibit C, IV.C 
Pop, Exhibit C, IV.B 
Try lever, Exhibit C, IV.A 
Scale, examination of surfaces for, 

Deposits, 9.05B 

Hot water boiler, 8.09D(7) 

Steam boiler, 7.09D(7) 
Scope, 1.01 

Seasonal treatment, 9.08B 
Section IV, 

Compliance with, 3.01 

References to, 1.04 
Section IX, references to, 7.08C 
Shutdown switches, 3.35 
Starting hot water boilers, 

After layup, Exhibit B, 8.02 

New, 8.01 
Starting steam boilers, 

After layup, Exhibit A, 7.02 

New, 7.01 
Staybolts, testing, 

Hot water boilers, 8.09D( 13) 

Steam boilers, 7.09D(13) 



89 



2011a SECTION VI 



Stays, inspection of, 

Hot water boilers, 8.09D(9) 

Steam boilers, 7.09D(9) 
Steam gages, 3.21 

Inspection of, 7.09D(23) 
Storage tanks, 

Hot water supply systems, 3.38 

Temperature control, 3.27 
Tests, Exhibit C 

Of combustion efficiency, Exhibit C, II 
Draft measurements, Exhibit C, II.C 
Gas burners, Exhibit C, II. B 
Oil burners, Exhibit C, II. A 
Of flame safeguard devices, Exhibit C, I 
Gas, Exhibit C, LA, C, D, E, G 
Oil, Exhibit C, LB, F 

Electric type with proven pilot 

flame detection (oil or gas), Exhibit C, LG 
Electronic flame rod with 

interrupted ignition (gas), Exhibit C, LD 
Electronic flame scanner type (oil), Exhibit C, I.F 

(gas), Exhibit C, I.E 
Thermal type (gas), Exhibit C, LA 
(oil), Exhibit C, LB 
Of limit controls 

Air pressure supervisory switch, Exhibit C, IILH 

Boiler room temperature, Exhibit C, III.C 

Draft, Exhibit C, III.B 

Electrical, Exhibit C, III.D 

Emergency disconnect switch, Exhibit C, III. I 

High gas pressure, Exhibit C, IILF 

High-limit steam pressure, Exhibit C, III. A 



Low gas pressure, Exhibit C, IILE 
Oil pressure supervisory switch, Exhibit C, III.G 
Thermometers, 3.26 
Traps, steam, 3.03 
Treatment, water, 9 
Alternatives to, 9.08 
Chemicals used, 9.06 
Functions of, 9.07 

For laid-up boilers, 9.1 ID 
Dry method, 9.11D(1) 
Wet method, 9.11D(2) 
Considerations, 9.02 
Continuous, 9.08B 
External, 9.08A 
Local ordinances, 9.04 
Seasonal, 9.08B 
Specialists, 9.03 
Troubles, 9.05 

Vacuum boilers, 2.05, 3.37 
Vacuum return pump, 3.06 
Ventilation of boiler room, 6.04 
Venting of gas controls, 5.04H 

Water, 

Connections, 6.05A 

Level, 7.05A, 7.06D 

Loss, 7.05F 

Makeup, 7.05G 
Water column, 3.23 

Inspection of, 7.09D(17) 
Water gage glass, 3.22 
Waterline, 7.05E 



90 



I